Bladder augmentation is an invaluable tool for the pediatric urologist, for both the protection of the upper urinary tract and attainment of urinary continence. However, it remains a major surgical undertaking with significant morbidity. This review examines the incidence and pathophysiology of some of the most common and serious complications, which include surgical complications, such as malignancy, bowel obstruction, and bladder perforation, and medical complications including urinary tract infections and gastrointestinal dysfunction. We review the most current and pertinent literature to provide a comprehensive and practical overview of complications from bladder augmentation in the pediatric population.
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