Bladder cancer: Epidemiology, staging and grading, and diagnosis

Ziya Kirkali, Theresa Chan, Murugesan Manoharan, Ferran Algaba, Christer Busch, Liang Cheng, Lambertus Kiemeney, Martin Kriegmair, R. Montironi, William M. Murphy, Isabell A. Sesterhenn, Masaaki Tachibana, Jeff Weider

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

582 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a variable natural history. At one end of the spectrum, low-grade Ta tumors have a low progression rate and require initial endoscopic treatment and surveillance but rarely present a threat to the patient. At the other extreme, high-grade tumors have a high malignant potential associated with significant progression and cancer death rates. In the Western world, bladder cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in men and the eighth most common in women. In Europe and the United States, bladder cancer accounts for 5% to 10% of all malignancies in men. The risk of developing bladder cancer at <75 years of age is 2% to 4% for men and 0.5% to 1% in women compared with the risk of lung cancer, for example, which is 8% in men and 2% in women. For the geographic and temporal comparison of bladder cancer incidence, it is crucial to separate the low-grade from the high-grade tumors. In epidemiologic studies on risk factors for bladder cancer, it is important to distinguish the low-grade Ta tumors from high-grade carcinoma in situ (CIS) and tumors >T1. Current studies do not support the routine screening for bladder cancer. However, prospective long-term studies are required to evaluate the benefits of bladder cancer screening, particularly in those at high risk. After assessing all available evidence, the Epidemiology and Diagnosis Committee has made recommendations on various diagnostic issues, including pathologic evaluation, urinary cytology, and imaging studies. Optimal resection techniques, role of repeat transurethral resection in high-grade T1 tumors, random bladder biopsy, and prostatic urethral biopsy are discussed, and appropriate recommendations are made according to the strength of available evidence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4-34
Number of pages31
JournalUrology
Volume66
Issue number6 SUPPL. 1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2005

Fingerprint

Neoplasm Staging
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
Epidemiology
Neoplasms
Biopsy
Western World
Natural History
Early Detection of Cancer
Cell Biology
Mortality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

Cite this

Kirkali, Z., Chan, T., Manoharan, M., Algaba, F., Busch, C., Cheng, L., ... Weider, J. (2005). Bladder cancer: Epidemiology, staging and grading, and diagnosis. Urology, 66(6 SUPPL. 1), 4-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2005.07.062

Bladder cancer : Epidemiology, staging and grading, and diagnosis. / Kirkali, Ziya; Chan, Theresa; Manoharan, Murugesan; Algaba, Ferran; Busch, Christer; Cheng, Liang; Kiemeney, Lambertus; Kriegmair, Martin; Montironi, R.; Murphy, William M.; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Tachibana, Masaaki; Weider, Jeff.

In: Urology, Vol. 66, No. 6 SUPPL. 1, 01.12.2005, p. 4-34.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kirkali, Z, Chan, T, Manoharan, M, Algaba, F, Busch, C, Cheng, L, Kiemeney, L, Kriegmair, M, Montironi, R, Murphy, WM, Sesterhenn, IA, Tachibana, M & Weider, J 2005, 'Bladder cancer: Epidemiology, staging and grading, and diagnosis', Urology, vol. 66, no. 6 SUPPL. 1, pp. 4-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2005.07.062
Kirkali Z, Chan T, Manoharan M, Algaba F, Busch C, Cheng L et al. Bladder cancer: Epidemiology, staging and grading, and diagnosis. Urology. 2005 Dec 1;66(6 SUPPL. 1):4-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2005.07.062
Kirkali, Ziya ; Chan, Theresa ; Manoharan, Murugesan ; Algaba, Ferran ; Busch, Christer ; Cheng, Liang ; Kiemeney, Lambertus ; Kriegmair, Martin ; Montironi, R. ; Murphy, William M. ; Sesterhenn, Isabell A. ; Tachibana, Masaaki ; Weider, Jeff. / Bladder cancer : Epidemiology, staging and grading, and diagnosis. In: Urology. 2005 ; Vol. 66, No. 6 SUPPL. 1. pp. 4-34.
@article{9a687aebb98f4af29663e5f705f6f487,
title = "Bladder cancer: Epidemiology, staging and grading, and diagnosis",
abstract = "Bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a variable natural history. At one end of the spectrum, low-grade Ta tumors have a low progression rate and require initial endoscopic treatment and surveillance but rarely present a threat to the patient. At the other extreme, high-grade tumors have a high malignant potential associated with significant progression and cancer death rates. In the Western world, bladder cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in men and the eighth most common in women. In Europe and the United States, bladder cancer accounts for 5{\%} to 10{\%} of all malignancies in men. The risk of developing bladder cancer at <75 years of age is 2{\%} to 4{\%} for men and 0.5{\%} to 1{\%} in women compared with the risk of lung cancer, for example, which is 8{\%} in men and 2{\%} in women. For the geographic and temporal comparison of bladder cancer incidence, it is crucial to separate the low-grade from the high-grade tumors. In epidemiologic studies on risk factors for bladder cancer, it is important to distinguish the low-grade Ta tumors from high-grade carcinoma in situ (CIS) and tumors >T1. Current studies do not support the routine screening for bladder cancer. However, prospective long-term studies are required to evaluate the benefits of bladder cancer screening, particularly in those at high risk. After assessing all available evidence, the Epidemiology and Diagnosis Committee has made recommendations on various diagnostic issues, including pathologic evaluation, urinary cytology, and imaging studies. Optimal resection techniques, role of repeat transurethral resection in high-grade T1 tumors, random bladder biopsy, and prostatic urethral biopsy are discussed, and appropriate recommendations are made according to the strength of available evidence.",
author = "Ziya Kirkali and Theresa Chan and Murugesan Manoharan and Ferran Algaba and Christer Busch and Liang Cheng and Lambertus Kiemeney and Martin Kriegmair and R. Montironi and Murphy, {William M.} and Sesterhenn, {Isabell A.} and Masaaki Tachibana and Jeff Weider",
year = "2005",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.urology.2005.07.062",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "66",
pages = "4--34",
journal = "Urology",
issn = "0090-4295",
publisher = "Elsevier Inc.",
number = "6 SUPPL. 1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Bladder cancer

T2 - Epidemiology, staging and grading, and diagnosis

AU - Kirkali, Ziya

AU - Chan, Theresa

AU - Manoharan, Murugesan

AU - Algaba, Ferran

AU - Busch, Christer

AU - Cheng, Liang

AU - Kiemeney, Lambertus

AU - Kriegmair, Martin

AU - Montironi, R.

AU - Murphy, William M.

AU - Sesterhenn, Isabell A.

AU - Tachibana, Masaaki

AU - Weider, Jeff

PY - 2005/12/1

Y1 - 2005/12/1

N2 - Bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a variable natural history. At one end of the spectrum, low-grade Ta tumors have a low progression rate and require initial endoscopic treatment and surveillance but rarely present a threat to the patient. At the other extreme, high-grade tumors have a high malignant potential associated with significant progression and cancer death rates. In the Western world, bladder cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in men and the eighth most common in women. In Europe and the United States, bladder cancer accounts for 5% to 10% of all malignancies in men. The risk of developing bladder cancer at <75 years of age is 2% to 4% for men and 0.5% to 1% in women compared with the risk of lung cancer, for example, which is 8% in men and 2% in women. For the geographic and temporal comparison of bladder cancer incidence, it is crucial to separate the low-grade from the high-grade tumors. In epidemiologic studies on risk factors for bladder cancer, it is important to distinguish the low-grade Ta tumors from high-grade carcinoma in situ (CIS) and tumors >T1. Current studies do not support the routine screening for bladder cancer. However, prospective long-term studies are required to evaluate the benefits of bladder cancer screening, particularly in those at high risk. After assessing all available evidence, the Epidemiology and Diagnosis Committee has made recommendations on various diagnostic issues, including pathologic evaluation, urinary cytology, and imaging studies. Optimal resection techniques, role of repeat transurethral resection in high-grade T1 tumors, random bladder biopsy, and prostatic urethral biopsy are discussed, and appropriate recommendations are made according to the strength of available evidence.

AB - Bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a variable natural history. At one end of the spectrum, low-grade Ta tumors have a low progression rate and require initial endoscopic treatment and surveillance but rarely present a threat to the patient. At the other extreme, high-grade tumors have a high malignant potential associated with significant progression and cancer death rates. In the Western world, bladder cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in men and the eighth most common in women. In Europe and the United States, bladder cancer accounts for 5% to 10% of all malignancies in men. The risk of developing bladder cancer at <75 years of age is 2% to 4% for men and 0.5% to 1% in women compared with the risk of lung cancer, for example, which is 8% in men and 2% in women. For the geographic and temporal comparison of bladder cancer incidence, it is crucial to separate the low-grade from the high-grade tumors. In epidemiologic studies on risk factors for bladder cancer, it is important to distinguish the low-grade Ta tumors from high-grade carcinoma in situ (CIS) and tumors >T1. Current studies do not support the routine screening for bladder cancer. However, prospective long-term studies are required to evaluate the benefits of bladder cancer screening, particularly in those at high risk. After assessing all available evidence, the Epidemiology and Diagnosis Committee has made recommendations on various diagnostic issues, including pathologic evaluation, urinary cytology, and imaging studies. Optimal resection techniques, role of repeat transurethral resection in high-grade T1 tumors, random bladder biopsy, and prostatic urethral biopsy are discussed, and appropriate recommendations are made according to the strength of available evidence.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=30044441045&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=30044441045&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.urology.2005.07.062

DO - 10.1016/j.urology.2005.07.062

M3 - Article

C2 - 16399414

AN - SCOPUS:30044441045

VL - 66

SP - 4

EP - 34

JO - Urology

JF - Urology

SN - 0090-4295

IS - 6 SUPPL. 1

ER -