Blockage of CD59 function restores activities of neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies in triggering antibody-dependent complement-mediated lysis of HIV-1 virions and provirus-activated latently infected cells

Kai Yang, Jie Lan, Nicole Shepherd, Ningjie Hu, Yanyan Xing, Daniel Byrd, Tohti Amet, Corlin Jewell, Samir Gupta, Carole Kounga, Jimin Gao, Andy Yu

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Abstract

Both HIV-1 virions and infected cells use their surface regulators of complement activation (RCA) to resist antibody-dependent complement-mediated lysis (ADCML). Blockage of the biological function of RCA members, particularly CD59 (a key RCA member that controls formation of the membrane attack complex at the terminal stage of the complement activation cascades via all three activation pathways), has rendered both HIV-1 virions and infected cells sensitive to ADCML mediated by anti-Env antibodies (Abs) or sera/plasma from patients at different stages of viral infection. In the current study, we used the well-characterized anti-HIV-1 neutralizing Abs (nAbs), including 2G12, 2F5, and 4E10, and non-nAbs, including 2.2C, A32, N5-i5, and N12- i15, to investigate whether the enhancement of ADCML by blockage of CD59 function is mediated by nAbs, non-nAbs, or both. We found that all nAbs and two non-nAbs (N5-i5 and A32) strongly reacted to three HIV-1 laboratory strains (R5, X4, and R5/ X4), six primary isolates, and provirus-activated ACH-2 cells examined. In contrast, two non-nAbs, 2.2C and N12-i15, reacted weakly and did not react to these targets, respectively. After blockage of CD59 function, the reactive Abs, regardless of their neutralizing activities, significantly enhanced specific ADCML of HIV-1 virions (both laboratory strains and primary isolates) and provirus-activated latently infected cells. The ADMCL efficacy positively correlated with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-reactive intensity of those Abs with their targets. Thus, blockage of RCA function represents a novel approach to restore activities of both nAbs and non-nAbs in triggering ADCML of HIV-1 virions and provirus-activated latently infected cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9393-9406
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Virology
Volume89
Issue number18
DOIs
StatePublished - 2015

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proviruses
Proviruses
Human immunodeficiency virus 1
Neutralizing Antibodies
virion
neutralization
Complement Activation
Virion
HIV-1
complement
antibodies
Antibodies
cells
Antibody-Dependent Enhancement
Complement Membrane Attack Complex
Virus Diseases
Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
neutralizing antibodies
Serum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Virology

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Blockage of CD59 function restores activities of neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies in triggering antibody-dependent complement-mediated lysis of HIV-1 virions and provirus-activated latently infected cells. / Yang, Kai; Lan, Jie; Shepherd, Nicole; Hu, Ningjie; Xing, Yanyan; Byrd, Daniel; Amet, Tohti; Jewell, Corlin; Gupta, Samir; Kounga, Carole; Gao, Jimin; Yu, Andy.

In: Journal of Virology, Vol. 89, No. 18, 2015, p. 9393-9406.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Yang, Kai ; Lan, Jie ; Shepherd, Nicole ; Hu, Ningjie ; Xing, Yanyan ; Byrd, Daniel ; Amet, Tohti ; Jewell, Corlin ; Gupta, Samir ; Kounga, Carole ; Gao, Jimin ; Yu, Andy. / Blockage of CD59 function restores activities of neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies in triggering antibody-dependent complement-mediated lysis of HIV-1 virions and provirus-activated latently infected cells. In: Journal of Virology. 2015 ; Vol. 89, No. 18. pp. 9393-9406.
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abstract = "Both HIV-1 virions and infected cells use their surface regulators of complement activation (RCA) to resist antibody-dependent complement-mediated lysis (ADCML). Blockage of the biological function of RCA members, particularly CD59 (a key RCA member that controls formation of the membrane attack complex at the terminal stage of the complement activation cascades via all three activation pathways), has rendered both HIV-1 virions and infected cells sensitive to ADCML mediated by anti-Env antibodies (Abs) or sera/plasma from patients at different stages of viral infection. In the current study, we used the well-characterized anti-HIV-1 neutralizing Abs (nAbs), including 2G12, 2F5, and 4E10, and non-nAbs, including 2.2C, A32, N5-i5, and N12- i15, to investigate whether the enhancement of ADCML by blockage of CD59 function is mediated by nAbs, non-nAbs, or both. We found that all nAbs and two non-nAbs (N5-i5 and A32) strongly reacted to three HIV-1 laboratory strains (R5, X4, and R5/ X4), six primary isolates, and provirus-activated ACH-2 cells examined. In contrast, two non-nAbs, 2.2C and N12-i15, reacted weakly and did not react to these targets, respectively. After blockage of CD59 function, the reactive Abs, regardless of their neutralizing activities, significantly enhanced specific ADCML of HIV-1 virions (both laboratory strains and primary isolates) and provirus-activated latently infected cells. The ADMCL efficacy positively correlated with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-reactive intensity of those Abs with their targets. Thus, blockage of RCA function represents a novel approach to restore activities of both nAbs and non-nAbs in triggering ADCML of HIV-1 virions and provirus-activated latently infected cells.",
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T1 - Blockage of CD59 function restores activities of neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies in triggering antibody-dependent complement-mediated lysis of HIV-1 virions and provirus-activated latently infected cells

AU - Yang, Kai

AU - Lan, Jie

AU - Shepherd, Nicole

AU - Hu, Ningjie

AU - Xing, Yanyan

AU - Byrd, Daniel

AU - Amet, Tohti

AU - Jewell, Corlin

AU - Gupta, Samir

AU - Kounga, Carole

AU - Gao, Jimin

AU - Yu, Andy

PY - 2015

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AB - Both HIV-1 virions and infected cells use their surface regulators of complement activation (RCA) to resist antibody-dependent complement-mediated lysis (ADCML). Blockage of the biological function of RCA members, particularly CD59 (a key RCA member that controls formation of the membrane attack complex at the terminal stage of the complement activation cascades via all three activation pathways), has rendered both HIV-1 virions and infected cells sensitive to ADCML mediated by anti-Env antibodies (Abs) or sera/plasma from patients at different stages of viral infection. In the current study, we used the well-characterized anti-HIV-1 neutralizing Abs (nAbs), including 2G12, 2F5, and 4E10, and non-nAbs, including 2.2C, A32, N5-i5, and N12- i15, to investigate whether the enhancement of ADCML by blockage of CD59 function is mediated by nAbs, non-nAbs, or both. We found that all nAbs and two non-nAbs (N5-i5 and A32) strongly reacted to three HIV-1 laboratory strains (R5, X4, and R5/ X4), six primary isolates, and provirus-activated ACH-2 cells examined. In contrast, two non-nAbs, 2.2C and N12-i15, reacted weakly and did not react to these targets, respectively. After blockage of CD59 function, the reactive Abs, regardless of their neutralizing activities, significantly enhanced specific ADCML of HIV-1 virions (both laboratory strains and primary isolates) and provirus-activated latently infected cells. The ADMCL efficacy positively correlated with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-reactive intensity of those Abs with their targets. Thus, blockage of RCA function represents a novel approach to restore activities of both nAbs and non-nAbs in triggering ADCML of HIV-1 virions and provirus-activated latently infected cells.

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