Bone Mineral Acquisition in Utero and During Infancy and Childhood

Linda A. DiMeglio, Mary B. Leonard

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Bone mass, a composite measure of bone size and mineral density, is a determinant of bone strength and is acquired during skeletal growth and development. Although up to 85% of bone mass is heritable, genetic polymorphisms explain only a small portion of the variations in bone mass in healthy individuals. Many additional factors influence bone acquisition during infancy and childhood, including gender, calcium intake, vitamin D status, physical activity, obesity, and pubertal timing. In addition, studies have highlighted the importance of the intrauterine environment and maternal factors such as maternal smoking, physical activity, and nutrition on fetal bone acquisition and long-term bone health. Animal studies using calciotropic hormone knockout models have provided significant insights into transplacental calcium transport mechanisms, whereas epidemiologic large cohort studies have provided insights into the life-long significance of bone acquisition during fetal development, infancy, and childhood. Finally, randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that physical activity and calcium intake affect bone acquisition in children.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationOsteoporosis
Subtitle of host publicationFourth Edition
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages39
ISBN (Print)9780124158535
StatePublished - Jun 2013


  • Bone health
  • Bone mass
  • Bone mineral acquisition
  • DXA technique
  • Infants
  • Meta-analysis
  • Physical activity
  • Utero
  • Vitamin D

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Dentistry(all)

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    DiMeglio, L. A., & Leonard, M. B. (2013). Bone Mineral Acquisition in Utero and During Infancy and Childhood. In Osteoporosis: Fourth Edition (pp. 977-1015). Elsevier Inc..