Brown adipose tissue thermogenesis heats brain and body as part of the brain-coordinated ultradian basic rest-activity cycle

Y. Ootsuka, R. C. de Menezes, Dmitry Zaretsky, A. Alimoradian, J. Hunt, A. Stefanidis, B. J. Oldfield, W. W. Blessing

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

62 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Brown adipose tissue (BAT), body and brain temperatures, as well as behavioral activity, arterial pressure and heart rate, increase episodically during the waking (dark) phase of the circadian cycle in rats. Phase-linking of combinations of these ultradian (<24 h) events has previously been noted, but no synthesis of their overall interrelationships has emerged. We hypothesized that they are coordinated by brain central command, and that BAT thermogenesis, itself controlled by the brain, contributes to increases in brain and body temperature. We used chronically implanted instruments to measure combinations of bat, brain and body temperatures, behavioral activity, tail artery blood flow, and arterial pressure and heart rate, in conscious freely moving Sprague-Dawley rats during the 12-h dark active period. Ambient temperature was kept constant for any particular 24-h day, varying between 22 and 27 °C on different days. Increases in BAT temperature (≥0.5 °C) occurred in an irregular episodic manner every 94±43 min (mean±SD). Varying the temperature over a wider range (18-30 °C) on different days did not change the periodicity, and neither body nor brain temperature fell before BAT temperature episodic increases. These increases are thus unlikely to reflect thermoregulatory homeostasis. Episodic BAT thermogenesis still occurred in food-deprived rats. Behavioral activity, arterial pressure (18±5 mmHg every 98±49 min) and heart rate (86±31 beats/min) increased approximately 3 min before each increase in BAT temperature. Increases in BAT temperature (1.1±0.4 °C) were larger than corresponding increases in brain (0.8±0.4 °C) and body (0.6±0.3 °C) temperature and the BAT episodes commenced 2-3 min before body and brain episodes, suggesting that BAT thermogenesis warms body and brain. Hippocampal 5-8 Hz theta rhythm, indicating active engagement with the environment, increased before the behavioral and autonomic events, suggesting coordination by brain central command as part of the 1-2 h ultradian basic rest-activity cycle (BRAC) proposed by Kleitman.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)849-861
Number of pages13
JournalNeuroscience
Volume164
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2009

Fingerprint

Activity Cycles
Brown Adipose Tissue
Thermogenesis
Human Body
Hot Temperature
Brain
Temperature
Body Temperature
Arterial Pressure
Heart Rate
Theta Rhythm
Periodicity
Sprague Dawley Rats
Tail
Homeostasis
Arteries

Keywords

  • arterial blood pressure
  • hippocampal theta rhythm
  • sleep
  • temperature
  • thermoregulation
  • wavelet mathematics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

Brown adipose tissue thermogenesis heats brain and body as part of the brain-coordinated ultradian basic rest-activity cycle. / Ootsuka, Y.; de Menezes, R. C.; Zaretsky, Dmitry; Alimoradian, A.; Hunt, J.; Stefanidis, A.; Oldfield, B. J.; Blessing, W. W.

In: Neuroscience, Vol. 164, No. 2, 01.12.2009, p. 849-861.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ootsuka, Y, de Menezes, RC, Zaretsky, D, Alimoradian, A, Hunt, J, Stefanidis, A, Oldfield, BJ & Blessing, WW 2009, 'Brown adipose tissue thermogenesis heats brain and body as part of the brain-coordinated ultradian basic rest-activity cycle', Neuroscience, vol. 164, no. 2, pp. 849-861. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.08.013
Ootsuka, Y. ; de Menezes, R. C. ; Zaretsky, Dmitry ; Alimoradian, A. ; Hunt, J. ; Stefanidis, A. ; Oldfield, B. J. ; Blessing, W. W. / Brown adipose tissue thermogenesis heats brain and body as part of the brain-coordinated ultradian basic rest-activity cycle. In: Neuroscience. 2009 ; Vol. 164, No. 2. pp. 849-861.
@article{2675d3b138194a90ae3e1c1847357871,
title = "Brown adipose tissue thermogenesis heats brain and body as part of the brain-coordinated ultradian basic rest-activity cycle",
abstract = "Brown adipose tissue (BAT), body and brain temperatures, as well as behavioral activity, arterial pressure and heart rate, increase episodically during the waking (dark) phase of the circadian cycle in rats. Phase-linking of combinations of these ultradian (<24 h) events has previously been noted, but no synthesis of their overall interrelationships has emerged. We hypothesized that they are coordinated by brain central command, and that BAT thermogenesis, itself controlled by the brain, contributes to increases in brain and body temperature. We used chronically implanted instruments to measure combinations of bat, brain and body temperatures, behavioral activity, tail artery blood flow, and arterial pressure and heart rate, in conscious freely moving Sprague-Dawley rats during the 12-h dark active period. Ambient temperature was kept constant for any particular 24-h day, varying between 22 and 27 °C on different days. Increases in BAT temperature (≥0.5 °C) occurred in an irregular episodic manner every 94±43 min (mean±SD). Varying the temperature over a wider range (18-30 °C) on different days did not change the periodicity, and neither body nor brain temperature fell before BAT temperature episodic increases. These increases are thus unlikely to reflect thermoregulatory homeostasis. Episodic BAT thermogenesis still occurred in food-deprived rats. Behavioral activity, arterial pressure (18±5 mmHg every 98±49 min) and heart rate (86±31 beats/min) increased approximately 3 min before each increase in BAT temperature. Increases in BAT temperature (1.1±0.4 °C) were larger than corresponding increases in brain (0.8±0.4 °C) and body (0.6±0.3 °C) temperature and the BAT episodes commenced 2-3 min before body and brain episodes, suggesting that BAT thermogenesis warms body and brain. Hippocampal 5-8 Hz theta rhythm, indicating active engagement with the environment, increased before the behavioral and autonomic events, suggesting coordination by brain central command as part of the 1-2 h ultradian basic rest-activity cycle (BRAC) proposed by Kleitman.",
keywords = "arterial blood pressure, hippocampal theta rhythm, sleep, temperature, thermoregulation, wavelet mathematics",
author = "Y. Ootsuka and {de Menezes}, {R. C.} and Dmitry Zaretsky and A. Alimoradian and J. Hunt and A. Stefanidis and Oldfield, {B. J.} and Blessing, {W. W.}",
year = "2009",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.08.013",
language = "English",
volume = "164",
pages = "849--861",
journal = "Neuroscience",
issn = "0306-4522",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Brown adipose tissue thermogenesis heats brain and body as part of the brain-coordinated ultradian basic rest-activity cycle

AU - Ootsuka, Y.

AU - de Menezes, R. C.

AU - Zaretsky, Dmitry

AU - Alimoradian, A.

AU - Hunt, J.

AU - Stefanidis, A.

AU - Oldfield, B. J.

AU - Blessing, W. W.

PY - 2009/12/1

Y1 - 2009/12/1

N2 - Brown adipose tissue (BAT), body and brain temperatures, as well as behavioral activity, arterial pressure and heart rate, increase episodically during the waking (dark) phase of the circadian cycle in rats. Phase-linking of combinations of these ultradian (<24 h) events has previously been noted, but no synthesis of their overall interrelationships has emerged. We hypothesized that they are coordinated by brain central command, and that BAT thermogenesis, itself controlled by the brain, contributes to increases in brain and body temperature. We used chronically implanted instruments to measure combinations of bat, brain and body temperatures, behavioral activity, tail artery blood flow, and arterial pressure and heart rate, in conscious freely moving Sprague-Dawley rats during the 12-h dark active period. Ambient temperature was kept constant for any particular 24-h day, varying between 22 and 27 °C on different days. Increases in BAT temperature (≥0.5 °C) occurred in an irregular episodic manner every 94±43 min (mean±SD). Varying the temperature over a wider range (18-30 °C) on different days did not change the periodicity, and neither body nor brain temperature fell before BAT temperature episodic increases. These increases are thus unlikely to reflect thermoregulatory homeostasis. Episodic BAT thermogenesis still occurred in food-deprived rats. Behavioral activity, arterial pressure (18±5 mmHg every 98±49 min) and heart rate (86±31 beats/min) increased approximately 3 min before each increase in BAT temperature. Increases in BAT temperature (1.1±0.4 °C) were larger than corresponding increases in brain (0.8±0.4 °C) and body (0.6±0.3 °C) temperature and the BAT episodes commenced 2-3 min before body and brain episodes, suggesting that BAT thermogenesis warms body and brain. Hippocampal 5-8 Hz theta rhythm, indicating active engagement with the environment, increased before the behavioral and autonomic events, suggesting coordination by brain central command as part of the 1-2 h ultradian basic rest-activity cycle (BRAC) proposed by Kleitman.

AB - Brown adipose tissue (BAT), body and brain temperatures, as well as behavioral activity, arterial pressure and heart rate, increase episodically during the waking (dark) phase of the circadian cycle in rats. Phase-linking of combinations of these ultradian (<24 h) events has previously been noted, but no synthesis of their overall interrelationships has emerged. We hypothesized that they are coordinated by brain central command, and that BAT thermogenesis, itself controlled by the brain, contributes to increases in brain and body temperature. We used chronically implanted instruments to measure combinations of bat, brain and body temperatures, behavioral activity, tail artery blood flow, and arterial pressure and heart rate, in conscious freely moving Sprague-Dawley rats during the 12-h dark active period. Ambient temperature was kept constant for any particular 24-h day, varying between 22 and 27 °C on different days. Increases in BAT temperature (≥0.5 °C) occurred in an irregular episodic manner every 94±43 min (mean±SD). Varying the temperature over a wider range (18-30 °C) on different days did not change the periodicity, and neither body nor brain temperature fell before BAT temperature episodic increases. These increases are thus unlikely to reflect thermoregulatory homeostasis. Episodic BAT thermogenesis still occurred in food-deprived rats. Behavioral activity, arterial pressure (18±5 mmHg every 98±49 min) and heart rate (86±31 beats/min) increased approximately 3 min before each increase in BAT temperature. Increases in BAT temperature (1.1±0.4 °C) were larger than corresponding increases in brain (0.8±0.4 °C) and body (0.6±0.3 °C) temperature and the BAT episodes commenced 2-3 min before body and brain episodes, suggesting that BAT thermogenesis warms body and brain. Hippocampal 5-8 Hz theta rhythm, indicating active engagement with the environment, increased before the behavioral and autonomic events, suggesting coordination by brain central command as part of the 1-2 h ultradian basic rest-activity cycle (BRAC) proposed by Kleitman.

KW - arterial blood pressure

KW - hippocampal theta rhythm

KW - sleep

KW - temperature

KW - thermoregulation

KW - wavelet mathematics

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=70349747306&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=70349747306&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.08.013

DO - 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.08.013

M3 - Article

C2 - 19679172

AN - SCOPUS:70349747306

VL - 164

SP - 849

EP - 861

JO - Neuroscience

JF - Neuroscience

SN - 0306-4522

IS - 2

ER -