Calcium phosphate cement reinforcement by polymer infiltration and in situ curing: A method for 3D scaffold reinforcement

Daniel L. Alge, T.M. Gabriel Chu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study describes a novel method of calcium phosphate cement reinforcement based on infiltrating a preset cement with a reactive polymer and then cross-linking the polymer in situ. This method can be used to reinforce 3D calcium phosphate cement scaffolds, which we demonstrate using poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) as a model reinforcing polymer. The compressive strength of a 3D scaffold comprised of orthogonally intersecting beams was increased from 0.31 ± 0.06 MPa to 1.65 ± 0.13 MPa using PEGDA 600. In addition, the mechanical properties of reinforced cement were characterized using three PEGDA molecular weights (200, 400, and 600 Da) and three cement powder to liquid (P/L) ratios (0.8, 1.0, and 1.43). Higher molecular weight increased reinforcement efficacy, and P/L controlled cement porosity and determined the extent of polymer incorporation. Although increasing polymer incorporation resulted in a transition from brittle, cement-like behavior to ductile, polymer-like behavior, maximizing polymer incorporation was not advantageous. Polymerization shrinkage produced microcracks in the cement, which reduced the mechanical properties. The most effective reinforcement was achieved with P/L of 1.43 and PEGDA 600. In this group, flexural strength increased from 0.44 ± 0.12 MPa to 7.04 ± 0.51 MPa, maximum displacement from 0.05 ± 0.01 mm to 1.44 ± 0.17 mm, and work of fracture from 0.64 ± 0.10 J/m<sup>2</sup> to 677.96 ± 70.88 J/m<sup>2</sup> compared to non-reinforced controls. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of our novel reinforcement method, as well as its potential for fabricating reinforced 3D calcium phosphate cement scaffolds useful for bone tissue engineering.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)547-555
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A
Volume94
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2010

Fingerprint

Calcium phosphate
Infiltration
Scaffolds
Curing
Reinforcement
Polymers
Cements
Polyethylene glycols
Powders
Molecular Weight
Liquids
Compressive Strength
Molecular weight
Porosity
Functional polymers
Bone cement
Mechanical properties
Tissue Engineering
calcium phosphate
Polymerization

Keywords

  • Bone tissue engineering
  • Calcium phosphate cement
  • Indirect casting
  • Reinforcement
  • Scaffold

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

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title = "Calcium phosphate cement reinforcement by polymer infiltration and in situ curing: A method for 3D scaffold reinforcement",
abstract = "This study describes a novel method of calcium phosphate cement reinforcement based on infiltrating a preset cement with a reactive polymer and then cross-linking the polymer in situ. This method can be used to reinforce 3D calcium phosphate cement scaffolds, which we demonstrate using poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) as a model reinforcing polymer. The compressive strength of a 3D scaffold comprised of orthogonally intersecting beams was increased from 0.31 ± 0.06 MPa to 1.65 ± 0.13 MPa using PEGDA 600. In addition, the mechanical properties of reinforced cement were characterized using three PEGDA molecular weights (200, 400, and 600 Da) and three cement powder to liquid (P/L) ratios (0.8, 1.0, and 1.43). Higher molecular weight increased reinforcement efficacy, and P/L controlled cement porosity and determined the extent of polymer incorporation. Although increasing polymer incorporation resulted in a transition from brittle, cement-like behavior to ductile, polymer-like behavior, maximizing polymer incorporation was not advantageous. Polymerization shrinkage produced microcracks in the cement, which reduced the mechanical properties. The most effective reinforcement was achieved with P/L of 1.43 and PEGDA 600. In this group, flexural strength increased from 0.44 ± 0.12 MPa to 7.04 ± 0.51 MPa, maximum displacement from 0.05 ± 0.01 mm to 1.44 ± 0.17 mm, and work of fracture from 0.64 ± 0.10 J/m2 to 677.96 ± 70.88 J/m2 compared to non-reinforced controls. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of our novel reinforcement method, as well as its potential for fabricating reinforced 3D calcium phosphate cement scaffolds useful for bone tissue engineering.",
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