Cardiovascular imaging using two-photon microscopy

John A. Scherschel, Michael Rubart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Two-photon excitation microscopy has become the standard technique for high resolution deep tissue and intravital imaging. It provides intrinsic three-dimensional resolution in combination with increased penetration depth compared to single-photon confocal microscopy. This article will describe the basic physical principles of two-photon excitation and will review its multiple applications to cardiovascular imaging, including second harmonic generation and fluorescence laser scanning microscopy. In particular, the capability and limitations of multiphoton microscopy to assess functional heterogeneity on a cellular scale deep within intact, Langendorff-perfused hearts are demonstrated. It will also discuss the use of two-photon excitation-induced release of caged compounds for the study of intracellular calcium signaling and intercellular dye transfer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)492-506
Number of pages15
JournalMicroscopy and Microanalysis
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2008


  • Calcium imaging
  • Laser scanning microscopy
  • Second harmonic generation
  • Two-photon excitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation

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