Carious lesion remineralizing potential of fluoride- and calcium-containing toothpastes: A laboratory study

Frank Lippert, Karmjeet K. Gill

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: The authors conducted a laboratory study to determine the carious lesion remineralization and fluoridation potential of fluoride (F)- and calcium-containing toothpastes. Methods: The authors created early carious lesions in bovine enamel specimens and assigned them to 7 treatment groups on the basis of their surface Vickers microhardness: Clinpro Tooth Crème (Clinpro) (3M ESPE), CTx4 Gel 1100 (CTx4) (Oral Biotech), Enamelon Fluoride Toothpaste (Enamelon) (Premier Dental), MI Paste ONE (MI-One) (GC America), Crest Cavity Protection Toothpaste (Crest) (Procter & Gamble), and 2 F-dose controls (low F, high F). The authors pH cycled the specimens for 10 days by using an established model, determined changes in surface microhardness, calculated percentage of surface microhardness recovery (%SMHr; primary outcome variable), and measured enamel F uptake (EFU). The authors used a 1-way analysis of variance for data analysis. Results: Study results showed an F-dose response for both %SMHr (low-F control: mean, 9.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7 to 13.8); Crest: mean, 26.2; CI, 21.8 to 30.6; high-F control: mean, 33.5; CI, 29.4 to 37.5) and EFU (low-F control: mean, 47; CI, 12 to 83; Crest: mean, 225; CI, 189 to 260; high-F control: mean, 307; CI, 271 to 342; all micrograms of F per cubic centimeter). For %SMHr, Clinpro (mean, 26.5; CI, 22.5 to 30.6) and CTx4 (mean, 27.3; CI, 23.1 to 31.5) were similar to Crest, all being superior to Enamelon (mean, 15.6; CI, 11.6 to 19.7), which was superior to MI-One (mean, 4.3; CI, 0.3 to 8.3). For EFU, there were no differences between Clinpro (mean, 189; CI, 153 to 224), CTx4 (mean, 177; CI, 142 to 213), Enamelon (mean, 196; CI, 161 to 232), and Crest, all being superior to MI-One (mean, 66; CI, 30 to 102). Conclusions: This study's results failed to show superior remineralizing efficacy of any of the toothpastes compared with those of a calcium-free F toothpaste, with 2 of the 4 toothpastes being inferior. Clinical testing will be required to establish conclusive evidence. Practical Implications: Clinicians should be aware of the remineralizing potential of new anticaries products.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of the American Dental Association
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019


  • calcium
  • Carious lesion
  • dentifrices
  • fluoride
  • laboratory testing
  • remineralization
  • toothpastes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)

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