Catalytic site of rabbit glycogen synthase isozymes. Identification of an active site lysine close to the amino terminus of the subunit

A. M. Mahrenholz, Y. Wang, Peter Roach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen synthase was inhibited by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and irreversibly inactivated after sodium borohydride reduction of the enzyme-pyridoxal-P complex. The irreversible inactivation by pyridoxal-P was opposed by the presence of the substrate UDP-glucose. With [3H]pyridoxal-P, covalent incorporation of 3H label into the enzyme could be monitored. UDP-glucose protected against 3H incorporation, whereas glucose-6-P was ineffective. Peptide mapping of tryptic digests indicated that two distinct peptides were specifically modified by pyridoxal-P. One of these peptides contained the NH2-terminal sequence of the glycogen synthase subunit. Chymotrypsin cleavage of this peptide resulted in a single-labeled fragment with the sequence: Glu-Val-Ala-Asn-(Pyridoxal-P-Lys)-Val-Gly-Gly-Ile-Tyr. This sequence is identical to that previously reported (Tagaya, M., Nakano. K., and Fukui, T. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 6670-6676) for a peptide specifically modified by a substrate analogue and inferred to form part of the active site of the enzyme. Sequence analysis revealed that the modified lysine was located at residue 38 from the NH2 terminus of the rabbit muscle glycogen synthase subunit. An analogous tryptic peptide obtained from the rabbit liver isozyme displayed a high degree of sequence homology in the vicinity of the modified lysine. We propose that the extreme NH2 terminus of the glycogen synthase subunit forms part of the catalytic site, in close proximity to one of the phosphorylated regions of the enzyme (site 2, serine 7). In addition, the work extends the known NH2-terminal amino acid sequences of both the liver and muscle glycogen synthase isozymes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10561-10565
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume263
Issue number22
StatePublished - 1988

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Glycogen Synthase
Pyridoxal Phosphate
Isoenzymes
Lysine
Catalytic Domain
Rabbits
Peptides
Uridine Diphosphate Glucose
Muscle
Enzymes
Liver
Muscles
Liver Glycogen
Peptide Mapping
Chymotrypsin
Substrates
Sequence Homology
Serine
Sequence Analysis
Labels

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry

Cite this

Catalytic site of rabbit glycogen synthase isozymes. Identification of an active site lysine close to the amino terminus of the subunit. / Mahrenholz, A. M.; Wang, Y.; Roach, Peter.

In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 263, No. 22, 1988, p. 10561-10565.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen synthase was inhibited by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and irreversibly inactivated after sodium borohydride reduction of the enzyme-pyridoxal-P complex. The irreversible inactivation by pyridoxal-P was opposed by the presence of the substrate UDP-glucose. With [3H]pyridoxal-P, covalent incorporation of 3H label into the enzyme could be monitored. UDP-glucose protected against 3H incorporation, whereas glucose-6-P was ineffective. Peptide mapping of tryptic digests indicated that two distinct peptides were specifically modified by pyridoxal-P. One of these peptides contained the NH2-terminal sequence of the glycogen synthase subunit. Chymotrypsin cleavage of this peptide resulted in a single-labeled fragment with the sequence: Glu-Val-Ala-Asn-(Pyridoxal-P-Lys)-Val-Gly-Gly-Ile-Tyr. This sequence is identical to that previously reported (Tagaya, M., Nakano. K., and Fukui, T. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 6670-6676) for a peptide specifically modified by a substrate analogue and inferred to form part of the active site of the enzyme. Sequence analysis revealed that the modified lysine was located at residue 38 from the NH2 terminus of the rabbit muscle glycogen synthase subunit. An analogous tryptic peptide obtained from the rabbit liver isozyme displayed a high degree of sequence homology in the vicinity of the modified lysine. We propose that the extreme NH2 terminus of the glycogen synthase subunit forms part of the catalytic site, in close proximity to one of the phosphorylated regions of the enzyme (site 2, serine 7). In addition, the work extends the known NH2-terminal amino acid sequences of both the liver and muscle glycogen synthase isozymes.",
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N2 - Rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen synthase was inhibited by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and irreversibly inactivated after sodium borohydride reduction of the enzyme-pyridoxal-P complex. The irreversible inactivation by pyridoxal-P was opposed by the presence of the substrate UDP-glucose. With [3H]pyridoxal-P, covalent incorporation of 3H label into the enzyme could be monitored. UDP-glucose protected against 3H incorporation, whereas glucose-6-P was ineffective. Peptide mapping of tryptic digests indicated that two distinct peptides were specifically modified by pyridoxal-P. One of these peptides contained the NH2-terminal sequence of the glycogen synthase subunit. Chymotrypsin cleavage of this peptide resulted in a single-labeled fragment with the sequence: Glu-Val-Ala-Asn-(Pyridoxal-P-Lys)-Val-Gly-Gly-Ile-Tyr. This sequence is identical to that previously reported (Tagaya, M., Nakano. K., and Fukui, T. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 6670-6676) for a peptide specifically modified by a substrate analogue and inferred to form part of the active site of the enzyme. Sequence analysis revealed that the modified lysine was located at residue 38 from the NH2 terminus of the rabbit muscle glycogen synthase subunit. An analogous tryptic peptide obtained from the rabbit liver isozyme displayed a high degree of sequence homology in the vicinity of the modified lysine. We propose that the extreme NH2 terminus of the glycogen synthase subunit forms part of the catalytic site, in close proximity to one of the phosphorylated regions of the enzyme (site 2, serine 7). In addition, the work extends the known NH2-terminal amino acid sequences of both the liver and muscle glycogen synthase isozymes.

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