Cervical carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation: A report of 28 cases with immunohistochemical analysis and molecular genetic evidence of common clonal origin with coexisting squamous and adenocarcinomas

Robert E. Emerson, Helen Michael, Mingsheng Wang, Shaobo Zhang, Lawrence M. Roth, Liang Cheng

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Cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas are rare, aggressive tumors and their immunohistochemical features and clonal relationship to coexisting tumors are incompletely described. Twenty-eight cases were identified (17 small cell, 9 large cell, and 2 mixed), 10 of which had an invasive squamous or adenocarcinoma component. Staining for synaptophysin, chromogranin A, TTF1, c-kit, CD44, and p16 was performed. Analyses for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 5 polymorphic microsatellite markers (D3S1300, D9S171, D11S914, D13S319, and TP53) and X-chromosome inactivation were performed. Of 17 cases with available blocks, 13 (76%) were synaptophysin+, 8 (47%) were chromogranin A+, 8 (47%) were TTF1+, 7 (41%) were c-kit+, and 6 (35%) were CD44+. Strong patchy or strong diffuse p16 staining was seen in all cases. LOH and X-chromosome inactivation analysis were performed for 17 cases, 8 of which had a coexisting squamous or adenocarcinoma component. Five of the 8 (63%) cases with 2 components showed allelic loss in both components. All 5 of these cases demonstrated identical LOH between the neuroendocrine and squamous or adenocarcinoma components. Nonrandom X-chromosome inactivation was seen in the neuroendocrine and other components in 4 of the 8 cases. In all 4 cases the pattern of inactivation was identical between the 2 components. Cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas have features similar to other extrapulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas, including expression of TTF1, c-kit, and CD44. Consistent staining for p16 is also seen. Concordant genetic alterations support common clonal origin for neuroendocrine carcinomas with a coexisting squamous or adenocarcinoma component.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)372-384
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Gynecological Pathology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016



  • Clonality analysis
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Neuroendocrine carcinoma
  • Uterine cervix

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

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