Cervical central canal occlusion induces noncommunicating syringomyelia

Yongjie Zhang, Yi Ping Zhang, Lisa B E Shields, Yiyan Zheng, Xiao-Ming Xu, Scott R. Whittemore, Christopher B. Shields

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying the development of noncommunicating syringomyelia are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of focal arachnoiditis and central canal (CC) occlusion (CCO) on the formation of noncommunicating syringomyelia in the adult rat cervical spinal cord. Expression of pericanalicular aquaporin-4 is also examined. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to circumferential or dorsal arachnoiditis (n = 34). Rats undergoing CCO (n = 69) were divided into 4 groups: group A, kaolin injection at a single site in the dorsal columns near the CC; group B, kaolin injection at multiple sites in the dorsal columns near the CC; group C, saline injection at multiple sites in the dorsal columns near the CC; or group D, controls. Rats were killed at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The CC area and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expression were measured at the level of maximal CC enlargement. RESULTS: Circumferential and dorsal arachnoiditis induced a mild increase in the CC area at 12 weeks. Single-site CCO induced slight CC enlargement. In contrast, multiple sites of CCO in proximity frequently induced a major expansion of the CC area (up to 50 times). Increased AQP4 expression was observed in pericanalicular astrocytes proportional to the degree of CC expansion. CONCLUSION: Multiple sites of CCO created a model of noncommunicating syringomyelia in adult rats. Increased astrocytic AQP4 expression was proportional to the degree of CC expansion. Modulation of aquaporin expression may be a novel target for therapeutic interventions to prevent syringomyelia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)126-137
Number of pages12
JournalNeurosurgery
Volume71
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2012

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Aquaporin 4
Syringomyelia
Arachnoiditis
Kaolin
Injections
Aquaporins
Astrocytes
Sprague Dawley Rats
Control Groups

Keywords

  • Aquaporin
  • Arachnoiditis
  • Central canal
  • Syringomyelia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Surgery

Cite this

Zhang, Y., Zhang, Y. P., Shields, L. B. E., Zheng, Y., Xu, X-M., Whittemore, S. R., & Shields, C. B. (2012). Cervical central canal occlusion induces noncommunicating syringomyelia. Neurosurgery, 71(1), 126-137. https://doi.org/10.1227/NEU.0b013e31824d18ae

Cervical central canal occlusion induces noncommunicating syringomyelia. / Zhang, Yongjie; Zhang, Yi Ping; Shields, Lisa B E; Zheng, Yiyan; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Whittemore, Scott R.; Shields, Christopher B.

In: Neurosurgery, Vol. 71, No. 1, 07.2012, p. 126-137.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zhang, Y, Zhang, YP, Shields, LBE, Zheng, Y, Xu, X-M, Whittemore, SR & Shields, CB 2012, 'Cervical central canal occlusion induces noncommunicating syringomyelia', Neurosurgery, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 126-137. https://doi.org/10.1227/NEU.0b013e31824d18ae
Zhang Y, Zhang YP, Shields LBE, Zheng Y, Xu X-M, Whittemore SR et al. Cervical central canal occlusion induces noncommunicating syringomyelia. Neurosurgery. 2012 Jul;71(1):126-137. https://doi.org/10.1227/NEU.0b013e31824d18ae
Zhang, Yongjie ; Zhang, Yi Ping ; Shields, Lisa B E ; Zheng, Yiyan ; Xu, Xiao-Ming ; Whittemore, Scott R. ; Shields, Christopher B. / Cervical central canal occlusion induces noncommunicating syringomyelia. In: Neurosurgery. 2012 ; Vol. 71, No. 1. pp. 126-137.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying the development of noncommunicating syringomyelia are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of focal arachnoiditis and central canal (CC) occlusion (CCO) on the formation of noncommunicating syringomyelia in the adult rat cervical spinal cord. Expression of pericanalicular aquaporin-4 is also examined. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to circumferential or dorsal arachnoiditis (n = 34). Rats undergoing CCO (n = 69) were divided into 4 groups: group A, kaolin injection at a single site in the dorsal columns near the CC; group B, kaolin injection at multiple sites in the dorsal columns near the CC; group C, saline injection at multiple sites in the dorsal columns near the CC; or group D, controls. Rats were killed at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The CC area and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expression were measured at the level of maximal CC enlargement. RESULTS: Circumferential and dorsal arachnoiditis induced a mild increase in the CC area at 12 weeks. Single-site CCO induced slight CC enlargement. In contrast, multiple sites of CCO in proximity frequently induced a major expansion of the CC area (up to 50 times). Increased AQP4 expression was observed in pericanalicular astrocytes proportional to the degree of CC expansion. CONCLUSION: Multiple sites of CCO created a model of noncommunicating syringomyelia in adult rats. Increased astrocytic AQP4 expression was proportional to the degree of CC expansion. Modulation of aquaporin expression may be a novel target for therapeutic interventions to prevent syringomyelia.",
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N2 - BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying the development of noncommunicating syringomyelia are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of focal arachnoiditis and central canal (CC) occlusion (CCO) on the formation of noncommunicating syringomyelia in the adult rat cervical spinal cord. Expression of pericanalicular aquaporin-4 is also examined. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to circumferential or dorsal arachnoiditis (n = 34). Rats undergoing CCO (n = 69) were divided into 4 groups: group A, kaolin injection at a single site in the dorsal columns near the CC; group B, kaolin injection at multiple sites in the dorsal columns near the CC; group C, saline injection at multiple sites in the dorsal columns near the CC; or group D, controls. Rats were killed at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The CC area and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expression were measured at the level of maximal CC enlargement. RESULTS: Circumferential and dorsal arachnoiditis induced a mild increase in the CC area at 12 weeks. Single-site CCO induced slight CC enlargement. In contrast, multiple sites of CCO in proximity frequently induced a major expansion of the CC area (up to 50 times). Increased AQP4 expression was observed in pericanalicular astrocytes proportional to the degree of CC expansion. CONCLUSION: Multiple sites of CCO created a model of noncommunicating syringomyelia in adult rats. Increased astrocytic AQP4 expression was proportional to the degree of CC expansion. Modulation of aquaporin expression may be a novel target for therapeutic interventions to prevent syringomyelia.

AB - BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying the development of noncommunicating syringomyelia are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of focal arachnoiditis and central canal (CC) occlusion (CCO) on the formation of noncommunicating syringomyelia in the adult rat cervical spinal cord. Expression of pericanalicular aquaporin-4 is also examined. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to circumferential or dorsal arachnoiditis (n = 34). Rats undergoing CCO (n = 69) were divided into 4 groups: group A, kaolin injection at a single site in the dorsal columns near the CC; group B, kaolin injection at multiple sites in the dorsal columns near the CC; group C, saline injection at multiple sites in the dorsal columns near the CC; or group D, controls. Rats were killed at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The CC area and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expression were measured at the level of maximal CC enlargement. RESULTS: Circumferential and dorsal arachnoiditis induced a mild increase in the CC area at 12 weeks. Single-site CCO induced slight CC enlargement. In contrast, multiple sites of CCO in proximity frequently induced a major expansion of the CC area (up to 50 times). Increased AQP4 expression was observed in pericanalicular astrocytes proportional to the degree of CC expansion. CONCLUSION: Multiple sites of CCO created a model of noncommunicating syringomyelia in adult rats. Increased astrocytic AQP4 expression was proportional to the degree of CC expansion. Modulation of aquaporin expression may be a novel target for therapeutic interventions to prevent syringomyelia.

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