Characteristics of noninvoluting congenital hemangioma: A retrospective review

Pristine W. Lee, Ilona J. Frieden, Jenna L. Streicher, Timothy McCalmont, Anita N. Haggstrom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

29 Scopus citations


Background Noninvoluting congenital hemangioma (NICH) is a distinct vascular tumor of infancy. Objective We describe the clinical characteristics, histopathology, imaging, and natural history of NICH and compare our findings with previous reports. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of charts and photographic databases from 2 vascular anomaly centers over a 15-year period. Results Thirty cases of NICH were identified. All patients had fully formed vascular lesions at birth that demonstrated a nonprogressive course. The trunk and lower extremities were preferred sites and there was a female predominance. Thirteen of 30 patients reported pain. Focal necrosis and scarring was seen in a minority. Doppler studies, when performed, confirmed high vascular flow. Microscopic evaluation of 4 excised lesions showed lobular areas of endothelial cell proliferation directly adjacent to ectatic malformed vessels. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated absence of glucose transporter-1 protein expression in every case. Wilms tumor-1 positivity was observed in lobular areas. The larger vessels did not stain with Wilms tumor-1, but some displayed D2-40 positivity. Limitations Patients were referred to university-based pediatric vascular anomaly centers, with potential bias toward more severe or extensive cases. Conclusions This retrospective study highlights the unique clinical and histopathologic features of NICH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)899-903
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2014


  • infantile hemangiomas
  • noninvoluting congenital hemangioma
  • vascular tumors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology

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