Characterization of Multidrug Resistance P-Glycoprotein Transport Function with an Organotechnetium Cation

David Piwnica-Worms, Vallabhaneni V. Rao, James F. Kronauge, James M. Croop

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

104 Scopus citations


Multidrug resistance (MDR) in mammalian cells and tumors is associated with overexpression of an ~170 kDa integral membrane efflux transporter, the MDR1 P-glycoprotein. Hexakis(2- methoxyisobutyl isonitrile)technetium(I) (Tc-SESTAMIBI), a γ-emitting lipophilic cationic metallopharmaceutical, has recently been shown to be a P-glycoprotein transport substrate. Exploiting the negligible lipid membrane adsorption properties of this organometallic substrate, we studied the transport kinetics, pharmacology, drug binding, and modulation of P-glycoprotein in cell preparations derived from a variety of species and selection strategies, including SW-1573, V79, Alex, and CHO drug-sensitive cells and in IT A, LZ-8, and Alex/A.5 MDR cells. Rapid cell accumulation (t1/2 ≈ 6 min) of the agent to a steady state was observed which was inversely proportional to immunodetectable levels of P-glycoprotein. Many MDR cytotoxic agents inhibited P-glycoprotein-mediated Tc-SESTAMIBI efflux, thereby enhancing organometallic cation accumulation. Median effective concentrations (EC50; wM) were as follows: vinblastine, 13; daunomycin, 55; idarubicin, 65; actinomycin D, 235; colchicine, minimal inhibition; adriamycin, no effect. P-glycoprotein modulators generally demonstrated significantly greater potency (EC50; M): SDZ PSC 833, 0.08; cyclosporin A, 1.3; verapamil, 4.1; quinidine, 6.4; prazosin, >300. Modulator-induced enhancement up to 100-fold was observed with Hill coefficients %1, consistent with simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Vanadate was an efficacious transport inhibitor, while agents usually not included in the MDR phenotype were without effect. Scatchard analysis showed quinidine to be a noncompetitive inhibitor of P-glycoprotein-mediated Tc-SESTAMIBI transport, indicating allosteric effector sites on P-glycoprotein. The lipid bilayer adsorbing agents tetraphenyl borate and phloretin induced large increases in final Tc-SESTAMIBI accumulation, showing maximal accumulations 2-fold greater than classic MDR modulators and Hill coefficients » 2. In V79 and 77A cells, modulators of PKC activity altered Tc-SESTAMIBI accumulation, while there was no indication of modulation of P-glycoproteinmediated Tc-SESTAMIBI transport by hypotonic buffer, extracellular ATP, Cl-, or K+ (membrane potential). While recognized and avidly transported by the P-glycoprotein at buffer concentrations as low as 7 pM, Tc-SESTAMIBI at up to 100 uM only minimally modulated the cytotoxic action of colchicine, doxorubicin, or vinblastine in MDR cells. In conclusion, transport analysis with Tc-SESTAMIBI is a sensitive assay for detecting functional expression of low levels of P-glycoprotein and for the quantitative characterization of transporter modulation and regulation. The biochemical data favor a high Km, high capacity allosterically modulated translocation mechanism for P-glycoprotein-mediated transport of this organometallic cation. In addition, the known physicochemical properties of Tc-SESTAMIBI combined with effects of the membrane adsorbing agents indicate that lipid-protein interactions are critical for transport of this metallopharmaceutical and would suggest that this drug gains access to protein transport domains from the lipid phase with rapid time constants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)12210-12220
Number of pages11
Issue number38
StatePublished - Sep 1995
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry

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