Cigarette smoke condensate affects the collagen-degrading ability of human gingival fibroblasts

W. Zhang, F. Song, L. Windsor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background and Objective: Cigarette smoke condensate, the particulate matter of cigarette smoke, is composed of thousands of chemicals, including nicotine. Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for periodontal disease. This study investigated the influence of cigarette smoke condensate on the collagen-degrading ability of human gingival fibroblasts and its mechanism. Material and Methods: Human gingival fibroblasts were exposed for 72 h to various concentrations of total particulate matter cigarette smoke condensate. Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were evaluated using water-soluble tetrazolium-1 and lactate dehydrogenase, respectively. The collagen-degrading ability of human gingival fibroblasts was evaluated in collagen-coated six-well plates. Conditioned media and membrane extracts were collected for zymography and western blot analyses of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Results: Cell proliferation decreased and cytotoxicity increased in human gingival fibroblasts with increasing concentrations of cigarette smoke condensate. Cell proliferation decreased by more than 50% (p <0.05) when the concentrations of total particulate matter cigarette smoke condensate were above 200 μg-mL, and cytotoxicity increased to more than 30% (p <0.05) when the concentrations of total particulate matter cigarette smoke condensate were above 400 μg-mL. Cigarette smoke condensate increased the collagen-degrading ability of human gingival fibroblasts, especially at a concentration of 100 μg-mL (1.5-fold increase, p <0.05) compared with the control. Cigarette smoke condensate increased the production of proMMP-1, proMMP-2, MMP-14 and TIMP-1, and decreased the production of TIMP-2, in conditioned media. Furthermore, compared with the control group, cigarette smoke condensate increased the production of MMP-2, MMP-14 and TIMP-2 in membrane extracts, especially at concentrations of 50-100 μg-mL. Conclusion: Cigarette smoke condensate affects human gingival fibroblast proliferation and is toxic at total particulate matter cigarette smoke condensate concentrations of ≥ 400 μg-mL. Cigarette smoke condensate can increase the collagen-degrading ability of human gingival fibroblasts by altering the production and localization of MMPs and TIMPs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)704-713
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Periodontal Research
Volume44
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2009

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Aptitude
Smoke
Tobacco Products
Collagen
Fibroblasts
Particulate Matter
Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors
Matrix Metalloproteinase 14
Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases
Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2
Cell Proliferation
Conditioned Culture Medium
Matrix Metalloproteinase 1
Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1
Membranes
Poisons
Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
Periodontal Diseases
Nicotine

Keywords

  • Gingival fibroblasts
  • Matrix metalloproteinase
  • Proliferation
  • Smoke condensate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Periodontics

Cite this

Cigarette smoke condensate affects the collagen-degrading ability of human gingival fibroblasts. / Zhang, W.; Song, F.; Windsor, L.

In: Journal of Periodontal Research, Vol. 44, No. 6, 12.2009, p. 704-713.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background and Objective: Cigarette smoke condensate, the particulate matter of cigarette smoke, is composed of thousands of chemicals, including nicotine. Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for periodontal disease. This study investigated the influence of cigarette smoke condensate on the collagen-degrading ability of human gingival fibroblasts and its mechanism. Material and Methods: Human gingival fibroblasts were exposed for 72 h to various concentrations of total particulate matter cigarette smoke condensate. Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were evaluated using water-soluble tetrazolium-1 and lactate dehydrogenase, respectively. The collagen-degrading ability of human gingival fibroblasts was evaluated in collagen-coated six-well plates. Conditioned media and membrane extracts were collected for zymography and western blot analyses of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Results: Cell proliferation decreased and cytotoxicity increased in human gingival fibroblasts with increasing concentrations of cigarette smoke condensate. Cell proliferation decreased by more than 50{\%} (p <0.05) when the concentrations of total particulate matter cigarette smoke condensate were above 200 μg-mL, and cytotoxicity increased to more than 30{\%} (p <0.05) when the concentrations of total particulate matter cigarette smoke condensate were above 400 μg-mL. Cigarette smoke condensate increased the collagen-degrading ability of human gingival fibroblasts, especially at a concentration of 100 μg-mL (1.5-fold increase, p <0.05) compared with the control. Cigarette smoke condensate increased the production of proMMP-1, proMMP-2, MMP-14 and TIMP-1, and decreased the production of TIMP-2, in conditioned media. Furthermore, compared with the control group, cigarette smoke condensate increased the production of MMP-2, MMP-14 and TIMP-2 in membrane extracts, especially at concentrations of 50-100 μg-mL. Conclusion: Cigarette smoke condensate affects human gingival fibroblast proliferation and is toxic at total particulate matter cigarette smoke condensate concentrations of ≥ 400 μg-mL. Cigarette smoke condensate can increase the collagen-degrading ability of human gingival fibroblasts by altering the production and localization of MMPs and TIMPs.",
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AB - Background and Objective: Cigarette smoke condensate, the particulate matter of cigarette smoke, is composed of thousands of chemicals, including nicotine. Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for periodontal disease. This study investigated the influence of cigarette smoke condensate on the collagen-degrading ability of human gingival fibroblasts and its mechanism. Material and Methods: Human gingival fibroblasts were exposed for 72 h to various concentrations of total particulate matter cigarette smoke condensate. Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were evaluated using water-soluble tetrazolium-1 and lactate dehydrogenase, respectively. The collagen-degrading ability of human gingival fibroblasts was evaluated in collagen-coated six-well plates. Conditioned media and membrane extracts were collected for zymography and western blot analyses of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Results: Cell proliferation decreased and cytotoxicity increased in human gingival fibroblasts with increasing concentrations of cigarette smoke condensate. Cell proliferation decreased by more than 50% (p <0.05) when the concentrations of total particulate matter cigarette smoke condensate were above 200 μg-mL, and cytotoxicity increased to more than 30% (p <0.05) when the concentrations of total particulate matter cigarette smoke condensate were above 400 μg-mL. Cigarette smoke condensate increased the collagen-degrading ability of human gingival fibroblasts, especially at a concentration of 100 μg-mL (1.5-fold increase, p <0.05) compared with the control. Cigarette smoke condensate increased the production of proMMP-1, proMMP-2, MMP-14 and TIMP-1, and decreased the production of TIMP-2, in conditioned media. Furthermore, compared with the control group, cigarette smoke condensate increased the production of MMP-2, MMP-14 and TIMP-2 in membrane extracts, especially at concentrations of 50-100 μg-mL. Conclusion: Cigarette smoke condensate affects human gingival fibroblast proliferation and is toxic at total particulate matter cigarette smoke condensate concentrations of ≥ 400 μg-mL. Cigarette smoke condensate can increase the collagen-degrading ability of human gingival fibroblasts by altering the production and localization of MMPs and TIMPs.

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