Integration of platinum-based chemotherapy and surgical resection of residual masses is essential in the management of advanced nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT). We reviewed our institutional experience in patients undergoing resection of extraretroperitoneal (ERP) residual masses after chemotherapy to assess its impact on cancer progression and survival. Between 1989 and 2003, 532 patients with advanced NSGCT underwent postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND) with a median follow-up of 41 months. Survival probabilities were estimated by the KaplanMeier method. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to determine the prognostic significance of risk factors for progression and survival. Of 532 patients, 402 (76%) underwent PC-RPLND alone, and 130 (24%) underwent resection of ERP residual disease concurrently or in a staged fashion within 6 weeks. Concordance between retroperitoneal (RP) and ERP sites of disease was 83% in the presence of fibrosis, 42% for teratoma, and 47% for viable NSGCT. Overall, 34% of patients undergoing resection of ERP residual disease had either teratoma or viable disease on final pathology. Five-year probability of freedom from progression was 74% (95% CI 65%, 82%) and disease-specific survival was 84% (95% CI 75%, 89%). On multivariable analysis the histologic findings at the ERP site were significant predictors of disease progression, independent of the RP findings. Our data suggest that teratoma or viable NSGCT is present in approximately one-third of patients undergoing resection of residual ERP disease. The presence of residual ERP teratoma and viable NSGCT predicts for cancer progression independent of RP histology.
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