Clinical implications of abundant calcium phosphate in routinely analyzed kidney stones

Joan H. Parks, Elaine M. Worcester, Fredric L. Coe, Andrew P. Evan, James E. Lingeman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

160 Scopus citations


Background. To better portray the clinical phenotype of kidney stone patients with high calcium phosphate (CaP) stone abundance, we present here clinical and laboratory findings of large numbers of stone formers (SF) with stone CaP ranging from 0% to 100%. Our purpose was to inform clinicians and highlight areas that seem to deserve further research. Methods. We calculated average percent CaP (CaP%) in all stones of 1201 patients, and classified them into CaOx (N = 1011) or CaP (N = 190). Sex differences, stone formation rates, urine stone risk factors, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatments, and relapse during treatment were quantified in relation to stone CaP content. Results. CaP% has risen for three decades, especially among women. ESWL rates adjusted for numbers of stones and duration of stone disease were higher in CaP SF (0.6 vs. 1.86 and 0.73 vs. 1.82, CaOx vs. CaP, men and women, respectively, P < 0.001), and especially when stones contained brushite (2.90 vs. 1.02 and 3.11 vs. 1.35, brushite vs. not, males and females, respectively, P < 0.001). Urine pH and CaP supersaturation rose in proportion to CaP% in a dose response manner. Relapse rates of CaP and CaOx SF did not differ, and both did well with medical prevention. Conclusion. Stone CaP% has risen for three decades. CaP SF, particularly with brushite stones, receive more ESWL treatments than CaOx SF, not explained by stone number or duration of stone disease. Urine supersaturations explain the high CaP%. High CaP% does not hamper medical stone prevention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)777-785
Number of pages9
JournalKidney international
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2004


  • Calcium phosphate
  • Kidney calculi
  • Lithotripsy
  • Treatment outcomes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

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