Nm23-H1 significantly reduces metastasis without effects on primary tumor size and was the first discovered metastasis suppressor gene. At least three mechanisms are thought to contribute to the metastasis-suppressive effect of Nm23-H1: (a) its histidine kinase activity toward ATP-citrate lyase, aldolase C, and the kinase suppressor of ras, with the last inactivating mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling; (b) binding proteins that titer out "free" Nm23-H1 and inhibit its ability to suppress metastasis; and (c) altered gene expression downstream of Nm23-H1, particularly an inverse association with the lysophosphatidic acid receptor endothelial differentiation gene-28 (EDG2). Most metastasis suppressor genes, including Nm23-H1, affect metastatic colonization, which is the outgrowth of tumor cells in distant locations; therefore, they are of high translational interest. A phase II trial is ongoing to test the hypothesis that a compound, high-dose medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), used as an unconventional gluocorticoid, will stimulate breast cancer cells to reexpress Nm23-H1 and limit subsequent metastatic colonization.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research