Clinical utility of immunohistochemistry in the diagnoses of urinary bladder neoplasia

Kurt B. Hodges, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Robert E. Emerson, Rodolfo Montironi, Liang Cheng

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

36 Scopus citations


Urothelial carcinomas demonstrate diverse morphologic and immunologic features that frequently lead to diagnostic challenges. Recent advances have identified a number of immunohistochemical stains that, when used in the context of a panel, can be a valuable tool in properly classifying primary urothelial carcinoma and carcinomas secondarily involving the urinary bladder. In addition, new biomarkers prove helpful in the staging of bladder carcinoma. In this article, we review the clinical utility of immunohistochemistry in a series of diagnostic scenarios, including flat urothelial lesions with atypia, rare variants of urothelial carcinoma, primary adenocarcinoma versus secondary colorectal tumors, distinguishing prostate from urothelial carcinoma, and the utility of smoothelin in staging bladder carcinoma. Emphasis is placed on panels of commonly used biomarkers to establish diagnoses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)401-410
Number of pages10
JournalApplied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1 2010


  • biomarkers
  • bladder
  • differential diagnosis
  • histogenesis
  • immunohistochemistry
  • transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) variants
  • urothelial carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Medical Laboratory Technology
  • Histology

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Clinical utility of immunohistochemistry in the diagnoses of urinary bladder neoplasia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this