Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) mediates a wide variety of disease states including septic shock, acute and chronic inflammation, and cachexia. Recently, a multivalent guanylhydrazone (CNI-1493) developed as an inhibitor of macrophage activation was shown to suppress TNF production and protect against tissue inflammation and endotoxin lethality [Bianchi, M., Ulrich, P., Bloom, O., Meistrell, M., Zimmerman, G. A., Schmidtmayerova, H., Bukrinsky, M., Donnelley, T., Bucala, R., Sherry, B., Manogue, K. R., Tortolani, A. J., Cerami, A. and Tracey, K. J. (1995) Mol. Med. 1, 254-266, and Bianchi, M., Bloom, O., Raabe, T., Cohen, P. S., Chesney, J., Sherry, B., Schmidtmayerova, H., Zhang, X., Bukrinsky, M., Ulrich, P., Cerami, A. and Tracey, J. (1996) J. Exp. Med., in press]. We have now elucidated the mechanism by which CNI-1493 inhibits macrophage TNF synthesis and show here that it acts through suppression of TNF translation efficiency. CNI-1493 blocked neither the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced increases in the expression of TNF mRNA nor the translocation of nuclear factor NF-κB to the nucleus in macrophages activated by 15 min of LPS stimulation, indicating that CNI-1493 does not interfere with early NF-κB-mediated transcriptional regulation of TNF. However, synthesis of the 26-kDa membrane form of TNF was effectively blocked by CNI-1493. Further evidence for the translational suppression of TNF is given by experiments using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) constructs containing elements of the TNF gene that are involved in TNF translational regulation. Both the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of the TNF gene were required to elicit maximal translational suppression by CNI-1493. Identification of the molecular target through which CNI-1493 inhibits TNF translation should provide insight into the regulation of macrophage activation and mechanisms of inflammation.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||5|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - Apr 30 1996|
ASJC Scopus subject areas