Combination Immunotherapy for Type 1 Diabetes

Robert N. Bone, Carmella Evans-Molina

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

7 Scopus citations


Purpose of Review: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease marked by β-cell destruction. Immunotherapies for T1D have been investigated since the 1980s and have focused on restoration of tolerance, T cell or B cell inhibition, regulatory T cell (Treg) induction, suppression of innate immunity and inflammation, immune system reset, and islet transplantation. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview and lessons learned from single immunotherapy trials, describe recent and ongoing combination immunotherapy trials, and provide perspectives on strategies for future combination clinical interventions aimed at preserving insulin secretion in T1D. Recent Findings: Combination immunotherapies have had mixed results in improving short-term glycemic control and insulin secretion in recent-onset T1D. Summary: A handful of studies have successfully reached their primary end-point of improved insulin secretion in recent-onset T1D. However, long-term improvements glycemic control and the restoration of insulin independence remain elusive. Future interventions should focus on strategies that combine immunomodulation with efforts to alleviate β-cell stress and address the formation of antigens that activate autoimmunity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number50
JournalCurrent Diabetes Reports
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2017


  • Clinical trials
  • Immune modulation
  • Neo-antigen
  • Tolerance restoration
  • Type 1 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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