Purpose: The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and the heat shock protein family are up-regulated in multiple myeloma and are both regulators of the cyclin D/retinoblastoma pathway, a critical pathway in multiple myeloma. Inhibitors of mTOR and HSP90 protein have showed in vitro and in vivo single-agent activity in multiple myeloma. Our objective was to determine the effects of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and the HSP90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) on multiple myeloma cells. Experimental Design: Multiple myeloma cell lines were incubated with rapamycin (0.1-100 nmol/L) and 17-AAG (100-600 nmol/L) alone and in combination. Results: In this study, we showed that the combination of rapamycin and 17-AAG synergistically inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, induced cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase-8/caspase-9, and dysregulated signaling in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mTOR and cyclin D1/retinoblastoma pathways. In addition, we showed that both 17-AAG and rapamycin inhibited angiogenesis and osteoclast formation, indicating that these agents target not only multiple myeloma cells but also the bone marrow microenvironment. Conclusions: These studies provide the basis for potential clinical evaluation of this combination for multiple myeloma patients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research