Background: Ion channel transient receptor potential membrane melastatin 6 and 7 (TRPM6 and TRPM7) play a central role in magnesium homeostasis, which is critical for maintaining glucose and insulin metabolism. However, it is unclear whether common genetic variation in TRPM6 and TRPM7 contributes to risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study in the Women's Health Study. During a median of 10 years of follow-up, 359 incident diabetes cases were diagnosed and matched by age and ethnicity with 359 controls. We analyzed 20 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TRPM6 and 5 common SNPs in TRPM7 for their association with diabetes risk. Results: Overall, there was no robust and significant association between any single SNP and diabetes risk. Neither was there any evidence of association between common TRPM6 and TRPM7 haplotypes and diabetes risk. Our haplotype analyses suggested a significant risk of type 2 diabetes among carriers of both the rare alleles from two non-synomous SNPs in TRPM6 (Val1393Ile in exon 26 [rs3750425] and Lys1584Glu in exon 27 [rs2274924]) when their magnesium intake was lower than 250 mg per day. Compared with non-carriers, women who were carriers of the haplotype 1393Ile-1584Glu had an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (OR, 4.92, 95% CI, 1.05-23.0) only when they had low magnesium intake (<250 mg/day). Conclusion: Our results provide suggestive evidence that two common non-synonymous TRPM6 coding region variants, Ile1393Val and Lys1584Glu polymorphisms, might confer susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in women with low magnesium intake. Further replication in large-scale studies is warranted.
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