Background: Patients with heart failure (HF) with concomitant ischemic heart disease (IHD) have not been well characterized. We examined survival of patients with ischemic HF syndrome (IHFS), defined as presentation with acute HF and concomitant features suggestive of IHD. Methods: Patients were included if they presented with acute HF to hospitals in Ontario, Canada. IHD was defined by any of the following criteria: angina/chest pain, prior myocardial infarction (MI), or troponin elevation that was above the upper limit of normal (mild) or suggestive of cardiac injury. Deaths were determined after hospital presentation. Results: Of 5353 patients presenting with acute HF, 4088 (76.4%) exhibited features of IHFS. Patients with IHFS demonstrated a higher rate of 30-day (hazard ratio [HR], 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-2.68) and 1-year death (HR, 1.16, 95% CI, 1.00-1.35) compared with those with nonischemic HF. Troponin elevation demonstrated the strongest association with mortality. Mildly elevated troponin was associated with increased hazard over 30-day (HR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.12-2.81) and 1-year (HR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.38-1.93) mortality. Troponins indicative of cardiac injury were associated with increased hazard of death over 30 days (HR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.63-3.33) and 1 year (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.21-1.61). The association between elevated troponin and higher mortality at 30 days was similar in left ventricular ejection fraction subcategories of HF with reduced ejection fraction, HF with mildly reduced ejection fraction, or HF with preserved ejection fraction (P interaction = 0.588). After multivariable adjustment, prior MI and angina were not associated with higher mortality risk. Conclusions: In acute HF, elevated troponin, but not prior MI or angina, was associated with a higher risk of 30-day and 1-year mortality irrespective of left ventricular ejection fraction.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine