Conceptual evolution in cancer biology

Shaobo Zhang, Darrell Davidson, Rodolfo Montironi, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Gregory T. MacLennan, Liang Cheng

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Stem cells are founder cells for every organ, tissue, and cell type in the body. Epigenetic processes govern cell differentiation by turning on or off tissue-specific genes; it also is an important mechanism of tumorigenesis. The major epigenetic process operates through DNA methylation at CpG sites converting cytosine to 5-methylcytosine. Another epigenetic process, gene imprinting, causes parental allele-specific expression of genes and is required in the development of an embryo. Loss of imprinting is associated with many types of tumors. DNA homeostasis depends on DNA repair. Impaired DNA mismatch repair mechanisms in the cell lead to accumulation of nonrepairable DNA alterations such as microsatellite instability, which is associated with both hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer and sporadic colorectal cancers. Chromosome instability leads to changes of number and structure of chromosomes, including chromosomal losses, gains, and rearrangements. These are common features of malignant tumors. Gene expression is also regulated posttranscriptionally through microRNA or RNAi, which degrade the mRNA through binding to its complementary sequence. Telomeres protect the chromosome from gene loss by preventing ring chromosome formation and from gene gain by eliminating nonreciprocal translocation during cell division.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMolecular Genetic Pathology: Second Edition
PublisherSpringer New York
Pages77-109
Number of pages33
ISBN (Print)9781461448006, 1461447992, 9781461447993
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2014

Fingerprint

Genetic Epigenesis
Genes
Neoplasms
Ring Chromosomes
5-Methylcytosine
Chromosome Structures
Genomic Imprinting
Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Neoplasms
Gene Expression
Chromosomal Instability
Microsatellite Instability
DNA Mismatch Repair
Cytosine
DNA
Telomere
DNA Methylation
RNA Interference
MicroRNAs
DNA Repair
Cell Division

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Zhang, S., Davidson, D., Montironi, R., Lopez-Beltran, A., MacLennan, G. T., & Cheng, L. (2014). Conceptual evolution in cancer biology. In Molecular Genetic Pathology: Second Edition (pp. 77-109). Springer New York. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-4800-6-4

Conceptual evolution in cancer biology. / Zhang, Shaobo; Davidson, Darrell; Montironi, Rodolfo; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; MacLennan, Gregory T.; Cheng, Liang.

Molecular Genetic Pathology: Second Edition. Springer New York, 2014. p. 77-109.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Zhang, S, Davidson, D, Montironi, R, Lopez-Beltran, A, MacLennan, GT & Cheng, L 2014, Conceptual evolution in cancer biology. in Molecular Genetic Pathology: Second Edition. Springer New York, pp. 77-109. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-4800-6-4
Zhang S, Davidson D, Montironi R, Lopez-Beltran A, MacLennan GT, Cheng L. Conceptual evolution in cancer biology. In Molecular Genetic Pathology: Second Edition. Springer New York. 2014. p. 77-109 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-4800-6-4
Zhang, Shaobo ; Davidson, Darrell ; Montironi, Rodolfo ; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio ; MacLennan, Gregory T. ; Cheng, Liang. / Conceptual evolution in cancer biology. Molecular Genetic Pathology: Second Edition. Springer New York, 2014. pp. 77-109
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