Pulmonary embolism has extremely varied clinical presentations and can be difficult to diagnose. Clinical decision rules can help determine the probability of pulmonary embolism by assessment of the clinical presentation. After the diagnosis, several prognostic rules can be used to risk-stratify and facilitate outpatient treatment of pulmonary embolism. This review addresses the utility of clinical decision rules, biomarkers in the diagnosis of pulmonary emoblism, high-risk patient phenotypes, the use of this data to make disposition decisions for patients with a diagnosis of PE, and recent shifts in the management of pulmonary embolism in the clinical setting.
- Biomarkers in pulmonary embolism
- Clinical decision rules
- Contribution to emergency nursing practice
- Pulmonary embolism
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