Delaying Iron therapy until 28 days after antimalarial treatment is associated with greater Iron incorporation and equivalent hematologic recovery after 56 days in children: A randomized controlled trial

Sarah E. Cusick, Robert O. Opoka, Steven A. Abrams, Chandy John, Michael K. Georgieff, Ezekiel Mupere

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: Iron therapy begun concurrently with antimalarial treatment may not be well absorbed because of malariainduced inflammation. Delaying the start of iron therapy may permit better iron absorption and distribution. Objective: We compared erythrocyte iron incorporation in children who started iron supplementation concurrently with antimalarial treatment or 28 d later. We hypothesized that delayed iron supplementation would be associated with greater incorporation and better hematologic recovery. Methods: We enrolled 100 children aged 6-59 mo with malaria and hemoglobin concentrations of 50.0-99.9 g/L who presented to Mulago Hospital, Kampala, into a randomized trial of iron therapy. All children were administered antimalarial treatment. Children with zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) ≥80 μmol/mol heme were randomly assigned to start iron supplementation concurrently with the antimalarial treatment [immediate iron (I) group] or 28 d later [delayed iron (D) group]. All children were administered iron-stable isotope 57Fe on day 0 and 58Fe on day 28. We compared the percentage of iron incorporation at the start of supplementation (I group at day 0 compared with D group at day 28, aim 1) and hematologic recovery at day 56 (aim 2). Results: The percentage of iron incorporation (mean ± SE)was greater at day 28 in the D group (16.5% ± 1.7%) than at day 0 in the I group (7.9% ± 0.5%; P < 0.001). On day 56, concentrations of hemoglobin and ZPP and plasma ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), hepcidin, and C-reactive protein did not differ between the groups. On day 28, the hemoglobin (mean ± SD) and plasma iron markers (geometricmean; 95% CI) reflected poorer iron status in the D group than in the I group at this intervening time as follows: hemoglobin (105 ± 15.9 compared with 112 ± 12.4 g/L; P = 0.04), ferritin (39.3 μg/L; 23.5, 65.7 μg/L compared with 79.9 μg/L; 58.3, 110 μg/L; P = 0.02), sTfR (8.9 mg/L; 7.4, 10.7 mg/L compared with 6.7 mg/L; 6.1, 7.5 mg/L; P = 0.01), and hepcidin (13.3 ng/mL; 8.3, 21.2 ng/mL compared with 38.8 ng/mL; 28.3, 53.3 ng/mL; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Delaying the start of iron improves incorporation but leads to equivalent hematologic recovery at day 56 in Ugandan children with malaria and anemia. These results do not demonstrate a clear, short-term benefit of delaying iron. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01754701.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1769-1774
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume146
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - 2016

Fingerprint

Antimalarials
Iron
Randomized Controlled Trials
Therapeutics
Hemoglobins
Hepcidins
Transferrin Receptors
Ferritins
Malaria
Iron Isotopes
Transferrin
Heme
C-Reactive Protein

Keywords

  • Iron
  • Iron-stable isotopes
  • Malaria
  • Timing of iron therapy
  • Uganda

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Delaying Iron therapy until 28 days after antimalarial treatment is associated with greater Iron incorporation and equivalent hematologic recovery after 56 days in children : A randomized controlled trial. / Cusick, Sarah E.; Opoka, Robert O.; Abrams, Steven A.; John, Chandy; Georgieff, Michael K.; Mupere, Ezekiel.

In: Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 146, No. 9, 2016, p. 1769-1774.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: Iron therapy begun concurrently with antimalarial treatment may not be well absorbed because of malariainduced inflammation. Delaying the start of iron therapy may permit better iron absorption and distribution. Objective: We compared erythrocyte iron incorporation in children who started iron supplementation concurrently with antimalarial treatment or 28 d later. We hypothesized that delayed iron supplementation would be associated with greater incorporation and better hematologic recovery. Methods: We enrolled 100 children aged 6-59 mo with malaria and hemoglobin concentrations of 50.0-99.9 g/L who presented to Mulago Hospital, Kampala, into a randomized trial of iron therapy. All children were administered antimalarial treatment. Children with zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) ≥80 μmol/mol heme were randomly assigned to start iron supplementation concurrently with the antimalarial treatment [immediate iron (I) group] or 28 d later [delayed iron (D) group]. All children were administered iron-stable isotope 57Fe on day 0 and 58Fe on day 28. We compared the percentage of iron incorporation at the start of supplementation (I group at day 0 compared with D group at day 28, aim 1) and hematologic recovery at day 56 (aim 2). Results: The percentage of iron incorporation (mean ± SE)was greater at day 28 in the D group (16.5{\%} ± 1.7{\%}) than at day 0 in the I group (7.9{\%} ± 0.5{\%}; P < 0.001). On day 56, concentrations of hemoglobin and ZPP and plasma ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), hepcidin, and C-reactive protein did not differ between the groups. On day 28, the hemoglobin (mean ± SD) and plasma iron markers (geometricmean; 95{\%} CI) reflected poorer iron status in the D group than in the I group at this intervening time as follows: hemoglobin (105 ± 15.9 compared with 112 ± 12.4 g/L; P = 0.04), ferritin (39.3 μg/L; 23.5, 65.7 μg/L compared with 79.9 μg/L; 58.3, 110 μg/L; P = 0.02), sTfR (8.9 mg/L; 7.4, 10.7 mg/L compared with 6.7 mg/L; 6.1, 7.5 mg/L; P = 0.01), and hepcidin (13.3 ng/mL; 8.3, 21.2 ng/mL compared with 38.8 ng/mL; 28.3, 53.3 ng/mL; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Delaying the start of iron improves incorporation but leads to equivalent hematologic recovery at day 56 in Ugandan children with malaria and anemia. These results do not demonstrate a clear, short-term benefit of delaying iron. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01754701.",
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author = "Cusick, {Sarah E.} and Opoka, {Robert O.} and Abrams, {Steven A.} and Chandy John and Georgieff, {Michael K.} and Ezekiel Mupere",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Delaying Iron therapy until 28 days after antimalarial treatment is associated with greater Iron incorporation and equivalent hematologic recovery after 56 days in children

T2 - A randomized controlled trial

AU - Cusick, Sarah E.

AU - Opoka, Robert O.

AU - Abrams, Steven A.

AU - John, Chandy

AU - Georgieff, Michael K.

AU - Mupere, Ezekiel

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Background: Iron therapy begun concurrently with antimalarial treatment may not be well absorbed because of malariainduced inflammation. Delaying the start of iron therapy may permit better iron absorption and distribution. Objective: We compared erythrocyte iron incorporation in children who started iron supplementation concurrently with antimalarial treatment or 28 d later. We hypothesized that delayed iron supplementation would be associated with greater incorporation and better hematologic recovery. Methods: We enrolled 100 children aged 6-59 mo with malaria and hemoglobin concentrations of 50.0-99.9 g/L who presented to Mulago Hospital, Kampala, into a randomized trial of iron therapy. All children were administered antimalarial treatment. Children with zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) ≥80 μmol/mol heme were randomly assigned to start iron supplementation concurrently with the antimalarial treatment [immediate iron (I) group] or 28 d later [delayed iron (D) group]. All children were administered iron-stable isotope 57Fe on day 0 and 58Fe on day 28. We compared the percentage of iron incorporation at the start of supplementation (I group at day 0 compared with D group at day 28, aim 1) and hematologic recovery at day 56 (aim 2). Results: The percentage of iron incorporation (mean ± SE)was greater at day 28 in the D group (16.5% ± 1.7%) than at day 0 in the I group (7.9% ± 0.5%; P < 0.001). On day 56, concentrations of hemoglobin and ZPP and plasma ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), hepcidin, and C-reactive protein did not differ between the groups. On day 28, the hemoglobin (mean ± SD) and plasma iron markers (geometricmean; 95% CI) reflected poorer iron status in the D group than in the I group at this intervening time as follows: hemoglobin (105 ± 15.9 compared with 112 ± 12.4 g/L; P = 0.04), ferritin (39.3 μg/L; 23.5, 65.7 μg/L compared with 79.9 μg/L; 58.3, 110 μg/L; P = 0.02), sTfR (8.9 mg/L; 7.4, 10.7 mg/L compared with 6.7 mg/L; 6.1, 7.5 mg/L; P = 0.01), and hepcidin (13.3 ng/mL; 8.3, 21.2 ng/mL compared with 38.8 ng/mL; 28.3, 53.3 ng/mL; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Delaying the start of iron improves incorporation but leads to equivalent hematologic recovery at day 56 in Ugandan children with malaria and anemia. These results do not demonstrate a clear, short-term benefit of delaying iron. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01754701.

AB - Background: Iron therapy begun concurrently with antimalarial treatment may not be well absorbed because of malariainduced inflammation. Delaying the start of iron therapy may permit better iron absorption and distribution. Objective: We compared erythrocyte iron incorporation in children who started iron supplementation concurrently with antimalarial treatment or 28 d later. We hypothesized that delayed iron supplementation would be associated with greater incorporation and better hematologic recovery. Methods: We enrolled 100 children aged 6-59 mo with malaria and hemoglobin concentrations of 50.0-99.9 g/L who presented to Mulago Hospital, Kampala, into a randomized trial of iron therapy. All children were administered antimalarial treatment. Children with zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) ≥80 μmol/mol heme were randomly assigned to start iron supplementation concurrently with the antimalarial treatment [immediate iron (I) group] or 28 d later [delayed iron (D) group]. All children were administered iron-stable isotope 57Fe on day 0 and 58Fe on day 28. We compared the percentage of iron incorporation at the start of supplementation (I group at day 0 compared with D group at day 28, aim 1) and hematologic recovery at day 56 (aim 2). Results: The percentage of iron incorporation (mean ± SE)was greater at day 28 in the D group (16.5% ± 1.7%) than at day 0 in the I group (7.9% ± 0.5%; P < 0.001). On day 56, concentrations of hemoglobin and ZPP and plasma ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), hepcidin, and C-reactive protein did not differ between the groups. On day 28, the hemoglobin (mean ± SD) and plasma iron markers (geometricmean; 95% CI) reflected poorer iron status in the D group than in the I group at this intervening time as follows: hemoglobin (105 ± 15.9 compared with 112 ± 12.4 g/L; P = 0.04), ferritin (39.3 μg/L; 23.5, 65.7 μg/L compared with 79.9 μg/L; 58.3, 110 μg/L; P = 0.02), sTfR (8.9 mg/L; 7.4, 10.7 mg/L compared with 6.7 mg/L; 6.1, 7.5 mg/L; P = 0.01), and hepcidin (13.3 ng/mL; 8.3, 21.2 ng/mL compared with 38.8 ng/mL; 28.3, 53.3 ng/mL; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Delaying the start of iron improves incorporation but leads to equivalent hematologic recovery at day 56 in Ugandan children with malaria and anemia. These results do not demonstrate a clear, short-term benefit of delaying iron. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01754701.

KW - Iron

KW - Iron-stable isotopes

KW - Malaria

KW - Timing of iron therapy

KW - Uganda

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