The purpose of this research was to describe patterns of density variation throughout the cortex of the humeral shaft in Macaca and to attempt to explain these variations in terms of the gross anatomy and mechanical function of the bone. One hundred ninety transverse sections were taken from five sites along the humeral diaphyses of 38 Macaca. The density at eight positions around each section was measured using radiographic and densitometric techniques. Analysis of variance indicated significant (p < 0.02) differences among cross‐sectional levels and positions within each level. No sexual dimorphism in density could be demonstrated, although sexual dimorphism in density has been reported for the femora of this same sample. This relationship between humerus and femur parallels that found in humans. Density increased distally in the humerus, probably due to major areas of muscle attachment. Comparison with similar data from the femur of Macaca indicated unexpected differences in density pattern which may underlie differences in the strength and mechanics of the upper and lower extremities.
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