Depressive symptoms and heart failure: Examining the sociodemographic variables

Linda M. Rohyans, Susan J. Pressler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Scopus citations


PURPOSE:: The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in depressive symptoms among a sample of heart failure outpatients by examining sociodemographic and clinical variables: sex, race, marital status, living arrangement/status, heart failure severity, and age. The most frequently reported depressive symptoms were also examined. DESIGN:: A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. SETTING:: Patients were enrolled in a larger research study from 5 clinics in the Midwest (1 adult primary care medicine clinic, 1 heart clinic, and 3 heart failure clinics). SAMPLE:: The sample included 150 patients with mean age of 61.3 years; 88 (59%) were men, and 62 (41%) were women; 47 (31%) were African American, 101 (67%) were white, and 2 (2%) were Asian patients. Forty-seven percent of the patient sample were New York Heart Association class III. Approximately half (51%) of the patient sample were married. METHODS:: The Patient Health Questionnaire 8 was used to measure depressive symptoms. Heart failure severity was assessed using the New York Heart Association classification. FINDINGS:: Patients with class III and IV had significantly more depressive symptoms than patients with class I and II (P < .0001). Age was negatively correlated with depressive symptoms scores (P < .0002). There were no significant differences in depressive symptoms among the variables of sex, race, marital status, or living arrangement. The most frequently reported depressive symptom was "feeling tired/no energy." CONCLUSIONS:: The findings from this study may contribute to the development of a broader knowledge base regarding depressive symptoms and its correlates in heart failure and may be used as a foundation for further research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)138-144
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Nurse Specialist
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Depressive symptoms
  • Heart failure
  • Sociodemographic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Leadership and Management
  • Assessment and Diagnosis
  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing
  • LPN and LVN

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