Evaluation of the severity of histologic changes associated with cystitis is often subjective and inconsistent from one sample to the next. The objective of this study was to establish a consistent, reproducible method to quantify histologic changes in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cystitis. Either LPS (n = 8) or pyrogen-free saline (n = 8) was instilled intravesically into the bladders of female C57bk-6 J mice. Twenty-four hours later, mice in these groups as well as eight untreated controls were sacrificed and bladders were removed, fixed in formalin, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E). A bladder inflammatory index (BII) was described by reviewing tissues for edema, leukocyte infiltration, and hemorrhage. Cross-sections were evaluated by a single pathologist in a blinded manner based on the objective BII described. The BII method for objectively analyzing bladder inflammation was effective and reproducible. Bladders instilled with LPS had significantly increased inflammation scores for edema, leukocyte infiltration, and hemorrhage compared with those instilled with saline or untreated controls (n = 8, P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that LPS causes bladder inflammation when instilled intravesically and that inflammation of mouse bladders can be objectively quantified using the histological method described.
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