Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Connectedness with Health Care Providers Scale for Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

Celeste R. Phillips, Joan E. Haase, Giorgos Bakoyannis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Purpose: Purposes of this study were to (1) develop an instrument of connectedness with health care providers (HCPs) for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer (ages 13 to 21 years); (2) evaluate the content validity of the instrument through expert panels; (3) assess the dimensionality of the instrument; (4) evaluate the internal consistency reliability of the instrument; and (5) evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity of the instrument through hypothesis testing. Methods: The Connectedness with HCPs Scale (C-HCPS) was developed and evaluated in two phases. Phase I involved generating items, having two expert panels (AYAs and clinicians; n = 13) evaluate the items for content validity, and pretesting the instrument before pilot testing (n = 6). In phase II, the psychometric properties of the instrument (dimensionality, internal consistency reliability, and convergent/discriminant validity) were evaluated (n = 101). Results: The initial exploratory factor analysis revealed that the items separated into two separate instruments. In addition to the C-HCPS, a Disconnectedness with HCPs Scale (D-HCPS) was revealed. The C-HCPS contains 35 items and the D-HCPS contains 11 items. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a five-factor solution for the C-HCPS and a two-factor solution for the D-HCPS. Internal consistency reliability of the C-HCPS and D-HCPS was 0.964 and 0.881, respectively. Good evidence of convergent and discriminant validity was demonstrated through hypothesis testing. Conclusion: Findings indicate that the C-HCPS and D-HCPS are both reliable instruments with good evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. Further exploration of these instruments using confirmatory factor analysis in a larger sample is needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)271-277
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2020



  • communication
  • connectedness
  • patient-provider relationship
  • resilience

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Oncology

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