Development and validation of the somatic symptom disorder-b criteria scale (SSD-12)

Anne Toussaint, Alexandra M. Murray, Katharina Voigt, Annabel Herzog, Benjamin Gierk, Kurt Kroenke, Winfried Rief, Peter Henningsen, Bernd Löwe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

46 Scopus citations


Objective: To develop and validate a new self-report questionnaire for the assessment of the psychological features of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition somatic symptom disorder. Methods: The Somatic SymptomDisorder-B Criteria Scale (SSD-12) was developed in several steps from an initial pool of 98 items. The SSD-12 is composed of 12 items; each of the three psychological subcriteria is measured by four items. In a cross-sectional study, the SSD-12 was administered to 698 patients (65.8% female, mean [standard deviation] age = 38.79 [14.15] years) from a psychosomatic outpatient clinic. Item and scale characteristics as well as measures of reliability and validity were determined. Results: The SSD-12 has good item characteristics and excellent reliability (Cronbach α =.95). Confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a three-factorial structure that reflects the three psychological criteria interpreted as cognitive, affective, and behavioral aspects (n = 663, Comparative Fit Index > 0.99, Tucker-Lewis Index > 0.99, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.06, 90% confidence interval = 0.01-0.08). SSD-12 total sum score was significantly associated with somatic symptom burden (r = 0.47, p

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5-12
Number of pages8
JournalPsychosomatic Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2016


  • Diagnostic instruments
  • Psychometrics
  • Self-report
  • Somatic symptom disorder
  • Somatoform disorders
  • SSD-12

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Applied Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

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    Toussaint, A., Murray, A. M., Voigt, K., Herzog, A., Gierk, B., Kroenke, K., Rief, W., Henningsen, P., & Löwe, B. (2016). Development and validation of the somatic symptom disorder-b criteria scale (SSD-12). Psychosomatic Medicine, 78(1), 5-12.