Development of a Semimechanistic Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model Describing Dextroamphetamine Exposure and Striatal Dopamine Response in Rats and Nonhuman Primates following a Single Dose of Dextroamphetamine

Marcel M. van Gaalen, Christina Schlumbohm, Joost H. Folgering, Saugat Adhikari, Chandrali Bhattacharya, Douglas Steinbach, Robert E. Stratford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Acute central nervous system exposure to dextroamphetamine (D-amphetamine) elicits a multitude of effects, including dual action on the dopamine transporter (DAT) to increase extracellular dopamine, and induction of a negative feedback response to limit the dopamine increase. A semimechanistic pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model with consideration of these multiple effects as a basis was developed. Integrated pharmacokinetics of D-amphetamine in plasma, brain extracellular fluid (ECF) via microdialysis, and cerebrospinal fluid were characterized using a population approach. This PK model was then linked to an indirect-response pharmacodynamic model using as a basis the measurement of extracellular striatal dopamine, also via microdialysis. In both rats and nonhuman primates (NHPs), D-amphetamine stimulation of dopamine outflow (reverse transport) through DAT was primarily responsible for the dose-linear increase in dopamine. As well, in both species a moderator function was needed to account for loss of the dopamine response in the presence of a relatively sustained D-amphetamine ECF exposure, presumptive of an acute tolerance response. PK/PD model structure was consistent between species; however, there was a 10-fold faster return to baseline dopamine in NHPs in response to an acute D-amphetamine challenge. These results suggest preservation from rodents to NHPs regarding the mechanism by which amphetamine increases extracellular dopamine, but a faster system response in NHPs to tolerate this increase. This microdialysis-based PK/PD model suggests greater value in directing preclinical discovery of novel approaches that modify reverse transport stimulation to treat amphetamine abuse. General value regarding insertion of an NHP model in paradigm rodent-to-human translational research is also suggested.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)107-120
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 2019


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology

Cite this