Development of a standardisation device for photographic assessment of dental fluorosis in field studies

Armando E. Soto-Rojas, E. Angeles Martínez-Mier, Jose L. Ureña-Cirett, Richard D. Jackson, George K. Stookey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Purpose: This study evaluated the agreement between clinical and photographic assessment of dental fluorosis (DF) in 73 children during a field study, using portable equipment and a standardising device. Materials and Methods: A dental exam was performed using the Tooth Surface Index of Fluorosis (TSIF). Photographs of the facial aspects of front teeth and from the occlusal aspect of the mandibular posterior teeth were taken. All photographs were taken following a standard operating procedure. Photographs of anterior and posterior teeth were coded and assigned a random study number. Examiners scored photographs as fluorosis cases or non-cases. Results: Agreement among the clinical examiners ranged from good to excellent. Agreement was also good for the repeated photographic evaluations. In total, 22% of the children were diagnosed with DF during a clinical exam, and 19% were diagnosed with DF using the photographs. Conclusions: Development of this method aided in the photographic assessment of DF. The photographs obtained were a useful tool for documenting DF, to re-train examiners, and to determine intra- and inter-examiner agreement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)29-36
Number of pages8
JournalOral Health and Preventive Dentistry
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2008


  • Dental fluorosis
  • Fluoride
  • Photography
  • TFI
  • TSIF

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dental Hygiene

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