Osteolytic bone destruction and its complications, bone pain, pathologic fractures, and hypercalcemia, are a major source of morbidity and mortality in patients with multiple myeloma. The bone destruction in multiple myeloma is due to increased osteoclast (OCL) activity and decreased bone formation in areas of bone adjacent to myeloma cells. The mechanisms underlying osteolysis in multiple myeloma in vivo are unclear. We used a human plasma cell leukemia cell line, ARH-77, that has disseminated growth in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and expresses IgGκ, as a model for human multiple myeloma. SCID mice were irradiated with 400 rads and mice were injected either with 106 ARH-77 cells intravenously (ARH-77 mice) or vehicle 24 hours after irradiation. Development of bone disease was assessed by blood ionized calcium levels, x-rays, and histology. All ARH-77, but none of control mice that survived irradiation, developed hind limb paralysis 28 to 35 days after injection and developed hypercalcemia (1.35 to 1.46 mmol/L) a mean of 5 days after becoming paraplegic. Lytic bone lesions were detected using x-rays in all the hypercalcemic mice examined. No lytic lesions or hypercalcemia developed in the controls. Controls or ARH-77 mice, after developing hypercalcemia, were then killed and bone marrow plasma from the long bones was obtained, concentrated, and assayed for bone-resorbing activity. Bone marrow plasma from ARH-77 mice induced significant bone resorption in the fetal rat long bone resorption assay when compared with controls (percentage of total 45Ca released = 35% ± 4% v 11% ± 1%). Histologic examination of tissues from the ARH-77 mice showed infiltration of myeloma cells in the liver and spleen and marked infiltration in vertebrae and long bones, with loss of bony trabeculae and increased OCL numbers. Interestingly, cultures of ARH-77 mouse bone marrow for early OCL precursors (colony-forming unit- granulocyte-macrophage [CFU-GM]) showed a threefold increase in CFU-GM from ARH-77 marrow versus controls (185 ± 32 v 40 ± 3 per 2 x 105 cells plated). Bone-resorbing human and murine cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL- 6), IL-1α or β, TGFα, lymphotoxin, and TNFα were not significantly increased in ARH-77 mouse sere or marrow plasma, compared with control mice, although ARH-77 cells produce IL-6 and lymphotoxin in vitro. Conditioned media from ARH-77 cells induced significant bone resorption in the fetal rat long bone resorption assay when compared with untreated media (percentage of total 45Ca released = 22% ± 2% v 11% ± 1%). This effect was not blocked by anti-IL-6 or antilymphotoxin (percentage of total 45Ca released = 19% ± 1% and 22% ± 1%, respectively). Thus, we have developed a model of human multiple myeloma bone disease that should be very useful to dissect the pathogenesis of the bone destruction in multiple myeloma.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|State||Published - Feb 15 1996|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology