Development of an Oral Operant Nicotine/Ethanol Co-Use Model in Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

Sheketha R. Hauser, Simon N. Katner, Gerald A. Deehan, Zheng Ming Ding, Jamie E. Toalston, Briana J. Scott, Richard Bell, William J. Mcbride, Zachary Rodd

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Alcohol abuse is frequently associated with nicotine (Nic) use. The current experiments were conducted to establish an oral operant ethanol + Nic (EtOH + Nic) co-use model and to characterize some aspects of EtOH + Nic co-use. Methods: Rats were allowed to choose between EtOH alone or EtOH + Nic solutions. Additionally, alcohol-preferring (P) rats were allowed to concurrently self-administer 3 distinct EtOH solutions (10, 20, and 30%) with varying amounts of Nic (0.07, 0.14, or 0.21 mg/ml) under operant conditions. P rats were also allowed to concurrently self-administer 2 distinct amounts of Nic (0.07 and 0.14 mg/ml) added to saccharin (Sacc; 0.025%) solutions. Results: During acquisition, P rats responded for the EtOH + Nic solutions at the same level as for EtOH alone, and responding for EtOH + Nic solutions was present throughout all drinking conditions. P rats also readily maintained stable self-administration behaviors for Nic + Sacc solutions. The results demonstrated that P rats readily acquired and maintained stable self-administration behaviors for EtOH + 0.07 and EtOH + 0.14 mg/ml Nic solutions. Self-administration of EtOH + 0.21 mg/ml Nic was established in only 50% of the subjects. P rats readily expressed seeking behaviors for the EtOH + Nic solutions and reacquired EtOH + Nic self-administration during relapse testing. In addition, tail blood samples indicated that EtOH + Nic co-use resulted in pharmacologically relevant levels of both EtOH and Nic in the blood. Conclusions: Overall, the results indicate that P rats readily consume EtOH + Nic solutions concurrently in the presence of EtOH alone, express drug-seeking behaviors, and will concurrently consume physiologically relevant levels of both drugs. These results support the idea that this oral operant EtOH + Nic co-use model would be suitable for studying the development of co-abuse and the consequences of long-term chronic co-abuse.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1963-1972
Number of pages10
JournalAlcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research
Volume36
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2012

Fingerprint

Nicotine
Rats
Ethanol
Alcohols
Self Administration
Blood
Drug-Seeking Behavior
Saccharin
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Alcoholism
Drinking
Tail
Recurrence
Testing

Keywords

  • Alcohol-Preferring P Rat
  • Co-Abuse
  • Co-Use
  • Ethanol
  • EtOH + Nicotine-Seeking
  • Nicotine
  • Pavlovian Spontaneous Recovery
  • Relapse

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Toxicology

Cite this

Development of an Oral Operant Nicotine/Ethanol Co-Use Model in Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats. / Hauser, Sheketha R.; Katner, Simon N.; Deehan, Gerald A.; Ding, Zheng Ming; Toalston, Jamie E.; Scott, Briana J.; Bell, Richard; Mcbride, William J.; Rodd, Zachary.

In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, Vol. 36, No. 11, 11.2012, p. 1963-1972.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hauser, Sheketha R. ; Katner, Simon N. ; Deehan, Gerald A. ; Ding, Zheng Ming ; Toalston, Jamie E. ; Scott, Briana J. ; Bell, Richard ; Mcbride, William J. ; Rodd, Zachary. / Development of an Oral Operant Nicotine/Ethanol Co-Use Model in Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats. In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 2012 ; Vol. 36, No. 11. pp. 1963-1972.
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AU - Ding, Zheng Ming

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N2 - Background: Alcohol abuse is frequently associated with nicotine (Nic) use. The current experiments were conducted to establish an oral operant ethanol + Nic (EtOH + Nic) co-use model and to characterize some aspects of EtOH + Nic co-use. Methods: Rats were allowed to choose between EtOH alone or EtOH + Nic solutions. Additionally, alcohol-preferring (P) rats were allowed to concurrently self-administer 3 distinct EtOH solutions (10, 20, and 30%) with varying amounts of Nic (0.07, 0.14, or 0.21 mg/ml) under operant conditions. P rats were also allowed to concurrently self-administer 2 distinct amounts of Nic (0.07 and 0.14 mg/ml) added to saccharin (Sacc; 0.025%) solutions. Results: During acquisition, P rats responded for the EtOH + Nic solutions at the same level as for EtOH alone, and responding for EtOH + Nic solutions was present throughout all drinking conditions. P rats also readily maintained stable self-administration behaviors for Nic + Sacc solutions. The results demonstrated that P rats readily acquired and maintained stable self-administration behaviors for EtOH + 0.07 and EtOH + 0.14 mg/ml Nic solutions. Self-administration of EtOH + 0.21 mg/ml Nic was established in only 50% of the subjects. P rats readily expressed seeking behaviors for the EtOH + Nic solutions and reacquired EtOH + Nic self-administration during relapse testing. In addition, tail blood samples indicated that EtOH + Nic co-use resulted in pharmacologically relevant levels of both EtOH and Nic in the blood. Conclusions: Overall, the results indicate that P rats readily consume EtOH + Nic solutions concurrently in the presence of EtOH alone, express drug-seeking behaviors, and will concurrently consume physiologically relevant levels of both drugs. These results support the idea that this oral operant EtOH + Nic co-use model would be suitable for studying the development of co-abuse and the consequences of long-term chronic co-abuse.

AB - Background: Alcohol abuse is frequently associated with nicotine (Nic) use. The current experiments were conducted to establish an oral operant ethanol + Nic (EtOH + Nic) co-use model and to characterize some aspects of EtOH + Nic co-use. Methods: Rats were allowed to choose between EtOH alone or EtOH + Nic solutions. Additionally, alcohol-preferring (P) rats were allowed to concurrently self-administer 3 distinct EtOH solutions (10, 20, and 30%) with varying amounts of Nic (0.07, 0.14, or 0.21 mg/ml) under operant conditions. P rats were also allowed to concurrently self-administer 2 distinct amounts of Nic (0.07 and 0.14 mg/ml) added to saccharin (Sacc; 0.025%) solutions. Results: During acquisition, P rats responded for the EtOH + Nic solutions at the same level as for EtOH alone, and responding for EtOH + Nic solutions was present throughout all drinking conditions. P rats also readily maintained stable self-administration behaviors for Nic + Sacc solutions. The results demonstrated that P rats readily acquired and maintained stable self-administration behaviors for EtOH + 0.07 and EtOH + 0.14 mg/ml Nic solutions. Self-administration of EtOH + 0.21 mg/ml Nic was established in only 50% of the subjects. P rats readily expressed seeking behaviors for the EtOH + Nic solutions and reacquired EtOH + Nic self-administration during relapse testing. In addition, tail blood samples indicated that EtOH + Nic co-use resulted in pharmacologically relevant levels of both EtOH and Nic in the blood. Conclusions: Overall, the results indicate that P rats readily consume EtOH + Nic solutions concurrently in the presence of EtOH alone, express drug-seeking behaviors, and will concurrently consume physiologically relevant levels of both drugs. These results support the idea that this oral operant EtOH + Nic co-use model would be suitable for studying the development of co-abuse and the consequences of long-term chronic co-abuse.

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KW - Relapse

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