PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To develop instruments to measure culturally related variables that may influence mammography screening behaviors in African American women. DESIGN: Instrumentation methodology. SETTING: Community organizations and public housing in the Indianapolis, IN, area. SAMPLE: 111 African American women with a mean age of 60.2 years and 64 Caucasian women with a mean age of 60 years. METHODS: After item development, scales were administered. Data were analyzed by factor analysis, item analysis via internal consistency reliability using Cronbach's alpha, and independent t tests and logistic regression analysis to test theoretical relationships. MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES: Personal space preferences, health temporal orientation, and perceived personal control. FINDINGS: Space items were factored into interpersonal and physical scales. Temporal orientation items were loaded on one factor, creating a one-dimensional scale. Control items were factored into internal and external control scales. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the scales ranged from 0.76-0.88. Interpersonal space preference, health temporal orientation, and perceived internal control scales each were predictive of mammography screening adherence. CONCLUSIONS: The three tested scales were reliable and valid. Scales, on average, did not differ between African American and Caucasian populations. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: These scales may be useful in future investigations aimed at increasing mammography screening in African American and Caucasian women.
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