The outlook for transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR) is changing with the availability of new and emerging treatments. ATTR now appears to be more common than previously thought and is no longer viewed as an obscure diagnosis with a grim prognosis. Now more than ever, there is growing emphasis on the need for early diagnosis because the treatments appear to be most effective if started in earlier stages of the disease. Diagnosing ATTR is a challenge as it may initially present with nonspecific symptoms and it is often thought of as a diagnosis of exclusion. Increased awareness is imperative as new treatments offer hope and have the potential to change the disease trajectory. ATTR commonly presents with neurological and cardiac features. Transthyretin (TTR) is a protein produced in the liver which misfolds either due to genetic mutations or due to aging and results in deposition of amyloid fibrils in organs and tissues. Apart from the traditional imaging modalities, newer techniques including echocardio-graphic strain imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and nuclear scintigraphy, as well as the increased availability of genetic testing are aiding in making a timely diagnosis. In this review, we present the current understanding of the ATTR disease process, diagnostic and surveillance approaches, newer treatment modalities, and the future directions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Safety Research
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)
- Pharmacology (medical)
- Chemical Health and Safety