Diagnostic utility of novel stem cell markers SALL4, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, UTF1, and TCL1 in primary mediastinal germ cell tumors

Aijun Liu, Liang Cheng, Jun Du, Yan Peng, Robert W. Allan, Lixin Wei, Jianping Li, Dengfeng Cao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

72 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors (GCTs) are rare and sometimes they pose diagnostic difficulty without immunohistochemical studies. Here, we investigated the diagnostic utility of 6 stem cell markers (SCMs) SALL4, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, UTF1, and TCL1 in 16 primary mediastinal seminomas, 3 embryonal carcinomas (ECs), 10 yolk sac tumors (YSTs), 7 teratomas (4 mature, 3 immature), and 1 choriocarcinoma. The percentage of tumor cells stained was scored as: 0 (no tumor cell staining), 1+ (≤30%), 2+ (31% to 60%), 3+ (61% to 90%), and 4+ (>90%). The staining intensity of SCMs was scored as weak, moderate, or strong. We also compared them with currently used GCT markers placental-like alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), α-fetoprotein (AFP), c-KIT, CD30, and glypican-3. All 16 seminomas showed staining for SALL4 (4+ in 15, 2+ in 1) (15 strong, 1 moderate), OCT4 (4+ in 11, 3+ in 4, 2+ in 1) (13 strong, 3 moderate), and UTF1 (4+ in 13, 3+ in 2, 2+ in 1) (7 strong, 5 moderate, 4 weak). Positive staining was shown by 9/9 seminomas tested for NANOG (4+ in 7, 2+ in 2) (8 strong, 1 weak), TCL1 (4+ strong in all), c-KIT (4+ in all), and PLAP (4+ in 5, 3+ in 1, 2+ in 2, 1+ in 1), but SOX2 staining was negative in all these tumors. All 3 ECs showed 4+ strong staining for SALL4, OCT4, and UTF1 but negative for TCL1. SOX2 staining was seen in 3/3 ECs (4+ strong in 1, 3+ weak to moderate in 2) whereas NANOG staining was seen in 2/3 ECs (2+ weak, 1+ moderate). CD30 staining was seen in 3/3 ECs (1+, 2+, 4+). Strong SALL4 staining was seen in 10/10 YSTs (4+ in 9, 2+ in 1). All 10 YSTs showed AFP (1+ in 7, 2+ in 1, 3+ in 2) and glypican-3 (1+ in 3, 2+ in 1, 3+ in 5, 4+ in 1) staining but only 4/10 YSTs showed PLAP staining (1+ in all 4). The mean percentage of YST cells stained with SALL4 was 92%, whereas it was 23% for AFP, 50% for glypican-3, and 4% for PLAP (P<0.01). Focal (1+) SALL4 (weak) and SOX2 (weak to moderate) staining was seen in 2/7 and 4/7 teratomas, respectively. The choriocarcinoma was negative for all 6 SCMs. Eleven thymomas and 6 thymic carcinomas were negative for 6 SCMs. No staining of NANOG and SOX2 was seen in 20 lymphomas (5 Hodgkin, 5 large B cell, 5 lymphoblastic, 5 anaplastic large cell) (other 4 SCMs in lymphomas earlier studied). Our study indicates that SALL4, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, UTF1, and TLC1 are novel sensitive diagnostic markers for primary mediastinal GCTs, with high specificity. Of these 6 SCMs, SALL4 is the only 1 expressed in YST. These novel SCMs are more sensitive than the currently used markers for mediastinal GCTs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)697-706
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Surgical Pathology
Volume34
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2010

Fingerprint

Germ Cell and Embryonal Neoplasms
Stem Cells
Staining and Labeling
Endodermal Sinus Tumor
Glypicans
Embryonal Carcinoma
Fetal Proteins
Seminoma
Choriocarcinoma
Thymoma
Teratoma
Negative Staining
Neoplasms
Tumor Biomarkers
Hodgkin Disease
Lymphoma
B-Lymphocytes

Keywords

  • Mediastinal germ cell tumors
  • NANOG
  • OCT4
  • SALL4
  • SOX2
  • TCL1
  • UTF1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Surgery

Cite this

Diagnostic utility of novel stem cell markers SALL4, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, UTF1, and TCL1 in primary mediastinal germ cell tumors. / Liu, Aijun; Cheng, Liang; Du, Jun; Peng, Yan; Allan, Robert W.; Wei, Lixin; Li, Jianping; Cao, Dengfeng.

In: American Journal of Surgical Pathology, Vol. 34, No. 5, 05.2010, p. 697-706.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Liu, Aijun ; Cheng, Liang ; Du, Jun ; Peng, Yan ; Allan, Robert W. ; Wei, Lixin ; Li, Jianping ; Cao, Dengfeng. / Diagnostic utility of novel stem cell markers SALL4, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, UTF1, and TCL1 in primary mediastinal germ cell tumors. In: American Journal of Surgical Pathology. 2010 ; Vol. 34, No. 5. pp. 697-706.
@article{2ed9ecd8387d4ec9983ee4876ca65b82,
title = "Diagnostic utility of novel stem cell markers SALL4, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, UTF1, and TCL1 in primary mediastinal germ cell tumors",
abstract = "Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors (GCTs) are rare and sometimes they pose diagnostic difficulty without immunohistochemical studies. Here, we investigated the diagnostic utility of 6 stem cell markers (SCMs) SALL4, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, UTF1, and TCL1 in 16 primary mediastinal seminomas, 3 embryonal carcinomas (ECs), 10 yolk sac tumors (YSTs), 7 teratomas (4 mature, 3 immature), and 1 choriocarcinoma. The percentage of tumor cells stained was scored as: 0 (no tumor cell staining), 1+ (≤30{\%}), 2+ (31{\%} to 60{\%}), 3+ (61{\%} to 90{\%}), and 4+ (>90{\%}). The staining intensity of SCMs was scored as weak, moderate, or strong. We also compared them with currently used GCT markers placental-like alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), α-fetoprotein (AFP), c-KIT, CD30, and glypican-3. All 16 seminomas showed staining for SALL4 (4+ in 15, 2+ in 1) (15 strong, 1 moderate), OCT4 (4+ in 11, 3+ in 4, 2+ in 1) (13 strong, 3 moderate), and UTF1 (4+ in 13, 3+ in 2, 2+ in 1) (7 strong, 5 moderate, 4 weak). Positive staining was shown by 9/9 seminomas tested for NANOG (4+ in 7, 2+ in 2) (8 strong, 1 weak), TCL1 (4+ strong in all), c-KIT (4+ in all), and PLAP (4+ in 5, 3+ in 1, 2+ in 2, 1+ in 1), but SOX2 staining was negative in all these tumors. All 3 ECs showed 4+ strong staining for SALL4, OCT4, and UTF1 but negative for TCL1. SOX2 staining was seen in 3/3 ECs (4+ strong in 1, 3+ weak to moderate in 2) whereas NANOG staining was seen in 2/3 ECs (2+ weak, 1+ moderate). CD30 staining was seen in 3/3 ECs (1+, 2+, 4+). Strong SALL4 staining was seen in 10/10 YSTs (4+ in 9, 2+ in 1). All 10 YSTs showed AFP (1+ in 7, 2+ in 1, 3+ in 2) and glypican-3 (1+ in 3, 2+ in 1, 3+ in 5, 4+ in 1) staining but only 4/10 YSTs showed PLAP staining (1+ in all 4). The mean percentage of YST cells stained with SALL4 was 92{\%}, whereas it was 23{\%} for AFP, 50{\%} for glypican-3, and 4{\%} for PLAP (P<0.01). Focal (1+) SALL4 (weak) and SOX2 (weak to moderate) staining was seen in 2/7 and 4/7 teratomas, respectively. The choriocarcinoma was negative for all 6 SCMs. Eleven thymomas and 6 thymic carcinomas were negative for 6 SCMs. No staining of NANOG and SOX2 was seen in 20 lymphomas (5 Hodgkin, 5 large B cell, 5 lymphoblastic, 5 anaplastic large cell) (other 4 SCMs in lymphomas earlier studied). Our study indicates that SALL4, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, UTF1, and TLC1 are novel sensitive diagnostic markers for primary mediastinal GCTs, with high specificity. Of these 6 SCMs, SALL4 is the only 1 expressed in YST. These novel SCMs are more sensitive than the currently used markers for mediastinal GCTs.",
keywords = "Mediastinal germ cell tumors, NANOG, OCT4, SALL4, SOX2, TCL1, UTF1",
author = "Aijun Liu and Liang Cheng and Jun Du and Yan Peng and Allan, {Robert W.} and Lixin Wei and Jianping Li and Dengfeng Cao",
year = "2010",
month = "5",
doi = "10.1097/PAS.0b013e3181db84aa",
language = "English",
volume = "34",
pages = "697--706",
journal = "American Journal of Surgical Pathology",
issn = "0147-5185",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Diagnostic utility of novel stem cell markers SALL4, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, UTF1, and TCL1 in primary mediastinal germ cell tumors

AU - Liu, Aijun

AU - Cheng, Liang

AU - Du, Jun

AU - Peng, Yan

AU - Allan, Robert W.

AU - Wei, Lixin

AU - Li, Jianping

AU - Cao, Dengfeng

PY - 2010/5

Y1 - 2010/5

N2 - Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors (GCTs) are rare and sometimes they pose diagnostic difficulty without immunohistochemical studies. Here, we investigated the diagnostic utility of 6 stem cell markers (SCMs) SALL4, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, UTF1, and TCL1 in 16 primary mediastinal seminomas, 3 embryonal carcinomas (ECs), 10 yolk sac tumors (YSTs), 7 teratomas (4 mature, 3 immature), and 1 choriocarcinoma. The percentage of tumor cells stained was scored as: 0 (no tumor cell staining), 1+ (≤30%), 2+ (31% to 60%), 3+ (61% to 90%), and 4+ (>90%). The staining intensity of SCMs was scored as weak, moderate, or strong. We also compared them with currently used GCT markers placental-like alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), α-fetoprotein (AFP), c-KIT, CD30, and glypican-3. All 16 seminomas showed staining for SALL4 (4+ in 15, 2+ in 1) (15 strong, 1 moderate), OCT4 (4+ in 11, 3+ in 4, 2+ in 1) (13 strong, 3 moderate), and UTF1 (4+ in 13, 3+ in 2, 2+ in 1) (7 strong, 5 moderate, 4 weak). Positive staining was shown by 9/9 seminomas tested for NANOG (4+ in 7, 2+ in 2) (8 strong, 1 weak), TCL1 (4+ strong in all), c-KIT (4+ in all), and PLAP (4+ in 5, 3+ in 1, 2+ in 2, 1+ in 1), but SOX2 staining was negative in all these tumors. All 3 ECs showed 4+ strong staining for SALL4, OCT4, and UTF1 but negative for TCL1. SOX2 staining was seen in 3/3 ECs (4+ strong in 1, 3+ weak to moderate in 2) whereas NANOG staining was seen in 2/3 ECs (2+ weak, 1+ moderate). CD30 staining was seen in 3/3 ECs (1+, 2+, 4+). Strong SALL4 staining was seen in 10/10 YSTs (4+ in 9, 2+ in 1). All 10 YSTs showed AFP (1+ in 7, 2+ in 1, 3+ in 2) and glypican-3 (1+ in 3, 2+ in 1, 3+ in 5, 4+ in 1) staining but only 4/10 YSTs showed PLAP staining (1+ in all 4). The mean percentage of YST cells stained with SALL4 was 92%, whereas it was 23% for AFP, 50% for glypican-3, and 4% for PLAP (P<0.01). Focal (1+) SALL4 (weak) and SOX2 (weak to moderate) staining was seen in 2/7 and 4/7 teratomas, respectively. The choriocarcinoma was negative for all 6 SCMs. Eleven thymomas and 6 thymic carcinomas were negative for 6 SCMs. No staining of NANOG and SOX2 was seen in 20 lymphomas (5 Hodgkin, 5 large B cell, 5 lymphoblastic, 5 anaplastic large cell) (other 4 SCMs in lymphomas earlier studied). Our study indicates that SALL4, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, UTF1, and TLC1 are novel sensitive diagnostic markers for primary mediastinal GCTs, with high specificity. Of these 6 SCMs, SALL4 is the only 1 expressed in YST. These novel SCMs are more sensitive than the currently used markers for mediastinal GCTs.

AB - Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors (GCTs) are rare and sometimes they pose diagnostic difficulty without immunohistochemical studies. Here, we investigated the diagnostic utility of 6 stem cell markers (SCMs) SALL4, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, UTF1, and TCL1 in 16 primary mediastinal seminomas, 3 embryonal carcinomas (ECs), 10 yolk sac tumors (YSTs), 7 teratomas (4 mature, 3 immature), and 1 choriocarcinoma. The percentage of tumor cells stained was scored as: 0 (no tumor cell staining), 1+ (≤30%), 2+ (31% to 60%), 3+ (61% to 90%), and 4+ (>90%). The staining intensity of SCMs was scored as weak, moderate, or strong. We also compared them with currently used GCT markers placental-like alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), α-fetoprotein (AFP), c-KIT, CD30, and glypican-3. All 16 seminomas showed staining for SALL4 (4+ in 15, 2+ in 1) (15 strong, 1 moderate), OCT4 (4+ in 11, 3+ in 4, 2+ in 1) (13 strong, 3 moderate), and UTF1 (4+ in 13, 3+ in 2, 2+ in 1) (7 strong, 5 moderate, 4 weak). Positive staining was shown by 9/9 seminomas tested for NANOG (4+ in 7, 2+ in 2) (8 strong, 1 weak), TCL1 (4+ strong in all), c-KIT (4+ in all), and PLAP (4+ in 5, 3+ in 1, 2+ in 2, 1+ in 1), but SOX2 staining was negative in all these tumors. All 3 ECs showed 4+ strong staining for SALL4, OCT4, and UTF1 but negative for TCL1. SOX2 staining was seen in 3/3 ECs (4+ strong in 1, 3+ weak to moderate in 2) whereas NANOG staining was seen in 2/3 ECs (2+ weak, 1+ moderate). CD30 staining was seen in 3/3 ECs (1+, 2+, 4+). Strong SALL4 staining was seen in 10/10 YSTs (4+ in 9, 2+ in 1). All 10 YSTs showed AFP (1+ in 7, 2+ in 1, 3+ in 2) and glypican-3 (1+ in 3, 2+ in 1, 3+ in 5, 4+ in 1) staining but only 4/10 YSTs showed PLAP staining (1+ in all 4). The mean percentage of YST cells stained with SALL4 was 92%, whereas it was 23% for AFP, 50% for glypican-3, and 4% for PLAP (P<0.01). Focal (1+) SALL4 (weak) and SOX2 (weak to moderate) staining was seen in 2/7 and 4/7 teratomas, respectively. The choriocarcinoma was negative for all 6 SCMs. Eleven thymomas and 6 thymic carcinomas were negative for 6 SCMs. No staining of NANOG and SOX2 was seen in 20 lymphomas (5 Hodgkin, 5 large B cell, 5 lymphoblastic, 5 anaplastic large cell) (other 4 SCMs in lymphomas earlier studied). Our study indicates that SALL4, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, UTF1, and TLC1 are novel sensitive diagnostic markers for primary mediastinal GCTs, with high specificity. Of these 6 SCMs, SALL4 is the only 1 expressed in YST. These novel SCMs are more sensitive than the currently used markers for mediastinal GCTs.

KW - Mediastinal germ cell tumors

KW - NANOG

KW - OCT4

KW - SALL4

KW - SOX2

KW - TCL1

KW - UTF1

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77951820988&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77951820988&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1097/PAS.0b013e3181db84aa

DO - 10.1097/PAS.0b013e3181db84aa

M3 - Article

C2 - 20410807

AN - SCOPUS:77951820988

VL - 34

SP - 697

EP - 706

JO - American Journal of Surgical Pathology

JF - American Journal of Surgical Pathology

SN - 0147-5185

IS - 5

ER -