Differences in the properties and enzymatic specificities of the two active sites of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (kininase II)

Studies with bradykinin and other natural peptides

Emmanuel Jaspard, Lei Wei, François Alhenc-Gelas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

275 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE, E.C.3.4.15.1) has been recently shown to contain two very similar domains, each of which bears a functional active site hydrolyzing Hip-His-Leu or angiotensin I (AI). The substrate specificity of the two active sites of ACE was compared using wild-type recombinant ACE and mutants, where one active site is suppressed by deletion or inactivated by mutations of 2 histidines coordinating an essential zinc atom. Both active sites converted bradykinin (BK) to BK1-7 and BK1-5 with similar kinetics and with Kapp m at least 30 times lower and kcat/ Kapp m 10 times higher than for AI. The carboxyl-terminal active site, but not the amino-terminal site, was activated by chloride; however, chloride activation was minimal compared with AI. Both domains also hydrolyzed substance P and cleaved a carboxyl-terminal protected dipeptide and tripeptide. The carboxyl-terminal active site was more readily activated by chloride and hydrolyzed substance P faster. Luteinizing-hormone releasing hormone was hydrolyzed by both active sites, but hydrolysis by the amino-terminal active site was faster. It performed the endoproteolytic amino-terminal cleavage of this peptide at least 30 times faster than the carboxyl-terminal active site. Both active sites cleaved a carboxyl-terminal tripeptide from luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. Thus, both active sites of ACE possess dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase and endopeptidase activities. However, only the carboxyl-terminal active site can undergo a chloride-induced alteration that greatly enhances the hydrolysis of AI or substance P, and the amino-terminal active site possesses an unusual amino-terminal endoproteolytic specificity for a natural peptide. This suggests physiologically important differences between the subsites of the two active centers, and different substrate specificity, despite the high degree of sequence homology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)9496-9503
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume268
Issue number13
StatePublished - May 5 1993
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Angiotensin I
Bradykinin
Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A
Chlorides
Catalytic Domain
Substance P
Peptides
Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
Hydrolysis
Endopeptidases
Dipeptides
Substrates
Histidine
Zinc
Chemical activation
Substrate Specificity
Atoms
Kinetics
Sequence Homology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry

Cite this

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title = "Differences in the properties and enzymatic specificities of the two active sites of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (kininase II): Studies with bradykinin and other natural peptides",
abstract = "Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE, E.C.3.4.15.1) has been recently shown to contain two very similar domains, each of which bears a functional active site hydrolyzing Hip-His-Leu or angiotensin I (AI). The substrate specificity of the two active sites of ACE was compared using wild-type recombinant ACE and mutants, where one active site is suppressed by deletion or inactivated by mutations of 2 histidines coordinating an essential zinc atom. Both active sites converted bradykinin (BK) to BK1-7 and BK1-5 with similar kinetics and with Kapp m at least 30 times lower and kcat/ Kapp m 10 times higher than for AI. The carboxyl-terminal active site, but not the amino-terminal site, was activated by chloride; however, chloride activation was minimal compared with AI. Both domains also hydrolyzed substance P and cleaved a carboxyl-terminal protected dipeptide and tripeptide. The carboxyl-terminal active site was more readily activated by chloride and hydrolyzed substance P faster. Luteinizing-hormone releasing hormone was hydrolyzed by both active sites, but hydrolysis by the amino-terminal active site was faster. It performed the endoproteolytic amino-terminal cleavage of this peptide at least 30 times faster than the carboxyl-terminal active site. Both active sites cleaved a carboxyl-terminal tripeptide from luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. Thus, both active sites of ACE possess dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase and endopeptidase activities. However, only the carboxyl-terminal active site can undergo a chloride-induced alteration that greatly enhances the hydrolysis of AI or substance P, and the amino-terminal active site possesses an unusual amino-terminal endoproteolytic specificity for a natural peptide. This suggests physiologically important differences between the subsites of the two active centers, and different substrate specificity, despite the high degree of sequence homology.",
author = "Emmanuel Jaspard and Lei Wei and Fran{\cc}ois Alhenc-Gelas",
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T1 - Differences in the properties and enzymatic specificities of the two active sites of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (kininase II)

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AU - Jaspard, Emmanuel

AU - Wei, Lei

AU - Alhenc-Gelas, François

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N2 - Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE, E.C.3.4.15.1) has been recently shown to contain two very similar domains, each of which bears a functional active site hydrolyzing Hip-His-Leu or angiotensin I (AI). The substrate specificity of the two active sites of ACE was compared using wild-type recombinant ACE and mutants, where one active site is suppressed by deletion or inactivated by mutations of 2 histidines coordinating an essential zinc atom. Both active sites converted bradykinin (BK) to BK1-7 and BK1-5 with similar kinetics and with Kapp m at least 30 times lower and kcat/ Kapp m 10 times higher than for AI. The carboxyl-terminal active site, but not the amino-terminal site, was activated by chloride; however, chloride activation was minimal compared with AI. Both domains also hydrolyzed substance P and cleaved a carboxyl-terminal protected dipeptide and tripeptide. The carboxyl-terminal active site was more readily activated by chloride and hydrolyzed substance P faster. Luteinizing-hormone releasing hormone was hydrolyzed by both active sites, but hydrolysis by the amino-terminal active site was faster. It performed the endoproteolytic amino-terminal cleavage of this peptide at least 30 times faster than the carboxyl-terminal active site. Both active sites cleaved a carboxyl-terminal tripeptide from luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. Thus, both active sites of ACE possess dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase and endopeptidase activities. However, only the carboxyl-terminal active site can undergo a chloride-induced alteration that greatly enhances the hydrolysis of AI or substance P, and the amino-terminal active site possesses an unusual amino-terminal endoproteolytic specificity for a natural peptide. This suggests physiologically important differences between the subsites of the two active centers, and different substrate specificity, despite the high degree of sequence homology.

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