Differentiation of retinal organoids from human pluripotent stem cells

Clarisse M. Fligor, Kang Chieh Huang, Sailee S. Lavekar, Kirstin B. VanderWall, Jason S. Meyer

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

2 Scopus citations


Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) possess the remarkable ability to differentiate into any cell type of the body, including those of the retina. Through the differentiation of these cells as retinal organoids, it is now possible to model the spatial and temporal development of the human retina using hPSCs, in which retinal progenitor cells produce the entire repertoire of retinal cells, first differentiating into retinal ganglion cells and ending with mature photoreceptors, bipolar cells, and Müller glia. Importantly, retinal organoids self-assemble into laminated structures that recapitulate the layering of the human retina with a retinal ganglion cell layer lining the inner layer and a distinctly separate photoreceptor layer occupying the outer layers. This organoid technology has provided access to human tissue for developmental and disease modeling, as well as translational applications such as high throughput drug screening and cell replacement therapies. However, the differentiation of retinal organoids does require some expertise and multiple strategies produce inconsistent results. Here, we describe in detail a well-established and relatively simple method for the generation of retinal organoids.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMethods in Cell Biology
EditorsJason R. Spence
PublisherAcademic Press Inc.
Number of pages24
ISBN (Print)9780128215319
StatePublished - 2020

Publication series

NameMethods in Cell Biology
ISSN (Print)0091-679X


  • Differentiation
  • Organoid
  • Retina
  • Stem cell

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Differentiation of retinal organoids from human pluripotent stem cells'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this