Dimerization is required for activation of eIF2 kinase Gcn2 in response to diverse environmental stress conditions

Jana Narasimhan, Kirk A. Staschke, Ronald C. Wek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

60 Scopus citations

Abstract

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, starvation for amino acids induces phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α by Gcn2 protein kinase, leading to elevated translation of GCN4. Gcn4p is a transcriptional activator of hundreds of genes involved in remedying nutrient deprivation. In addition to a conserved kinase domain, Gcn2p has a regulatory region homologous to histidyl tRNA synthetase enzymes that binds uncharged tRNA that accumulates during amino acid starvation. Flanking the carboxyl terminus of the histidyl-tRNA synthetase-related domain is a region spanning 162 residues that participates in the activation of the protein kinase. Gel filtration and chemical cross-linking analysis of the recombinant carboxyl-terminal Gcn2 protein revealed that this region is a stable homodimer that is highly resistant to high concentrations of salt. Residue alterations in three hydrophobic segments and one segment with a proposed amphipathic α-helix in this Gcn2p carboxyl terminus blocked oligomerization, supporting the role of hydrophobic interactions in the dimerization interface of Gcn2p. Introduction of residue substitutions that impaired dimerization into the full-length protein prevented the ability of Gcn2p to phosphorylate its substrate eukaryotic initiation factor-2α and induce GCN4 translational expression in yeast cells subjected to a variety of stresses including amino acid limitation or exposure to rapamycin or high levels of NaCl. This latter stress can be overcome by addition of increasing amounts of K+ ions, indicating that the Na+/K+ ion balance is central to this stress induction. We conclude that dimerization involving hydrophobic segments in the carboxyl-terminal region is required for activation of Gcn2p in response to a multitude of stresses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)22820-22832
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume279
Issue number22
DOIs
StatePublished - May 28 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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