A recent study has identified gene mutations involving the MAPK/ERK pathway, particularly the HRAS gene, in all inverted urothelial papillomas (IUPs), in the absence of pathway mutations in TERT promoter, FGFR3, and TP53/RB1genes. Neither recurrence nor progression was observed in IUPs. These data support several longstanding hypotheses: (1) IUPs are benign and do not recur or progress; (2) they harbor mutations that are different from those of urothelial carcinoma; and (3) they arise through different molecular mechanisms than low- or high-grade urothelial carcinoma. As the most critical differential diagnosis in this context is inverted-type urothelial carcinoma, more comprehensive studies are needed to compare and contrast these entities.
- MAPK/ERK pathway
- TERT promoter mutation
- inverted urothelial papilloma
- molecular genetics
- urinary bladder
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine