Distribution of adsorbed antigen in mono-valent and combination vaccines

Garry L. Morefield, Harm HogenEsch, J. Paul Robinson, Stanley L. Hem

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


The distribution of alpha-casein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), myoglobin and recombinant protective antigen (rPA) in mono-valent and combination vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide adjuvant was studied by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Green and red fluorescent probes were conjugated to the antigens. Adsorption isotherms of the fluorescently labeled proteins to aluminum hydroxide adjuvant demonstrated that incorporation of the fluorescent probe did not significantly affect the adsorption. In mono-valent vaccine systems, antigen adsorption occurred within one minute and uniform surface coverage of the adjuvant aggregates was observed within 1 h. Content uniformity was achieved through a cycle of de-aggregation and re-aggregation of the aluminum hydroxide adjuvant aggregates caused by mixing. For combination vaccines, two antigens were adsorbed separately to the aluminum hydroxide adjuvant prior to combination. Following combination, cycles of de-aggregation and re-aggregation occurred due to mixing, which led to uniform distribution of both antigens. The results of this study indicate that content uniformity should not be an issue during the production of mono-valent or combination vaccines as long as adequate mixing procedures are followed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1973-1984
Number of pages12
Issue number15-16
StatePublished - May 7 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Antigen adsorption by aluminum hydroxide adjuvant
  • Content uniformity in mono-valent and combination vaccines
  • Flow cytometry
  • Fluorescence microscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • veterinary(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases

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