Background: Patients with heart failure (HF) have poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The vast majority of patients have physical symptoms, and about 30-40% have depressive symptoms. The combined effects of physical and depressive symptoms on HRQOL have not been examined fully in HF. Purposes: To examine the combined effects of physical and depressive symptoms on HRQOL using repeated measures, controlling for covariates (i.e. age, education level, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, financial status, and health perception). Methods: Patients (N = 224, 62 ± 12 years old, 67% male, 38% NYHA functional class III/IV) provided data on physical (Symptom Status Questionnaire) and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory II) at baseline and HRQOL (Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire) at baseline and 12 months. Patients were divided into three groups based on presence of physical and depressive symptoms: a) no symptom group, b) one symptom group (dyspnea or fatigue), and c) two symptom group (physical and depressive symptoms). Repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the data. Results: The least squares mean scores of baseline and 12-month HRQOL differed significantly in the three groups after controlling for the covariates (26.4 vs. 36.6 vs. 53.1, respectively, all pairwise p values (0.001). There was no time-bygroup interaction or time main effect. Conclusion: Physical and depressive symptoms have a dose-response relationship with HRQOL. Further research is needed to provide effective interventions to improve physical and depressive symptoms, in turn, HRQOL.
- Heart failure
- depressive symptoms
- quality of life
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing