Dosimetry of high energy photon and electron beams with CEA films

Chee Wai Cheng, Indra J. Das

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

36 Scopus citations


With all the advantages of film dosimetry in the megavoltage energy range, the use of film as a dosimeter is still limited due to the various difficulties associated with films such as energy dependence, film orientation, and sensitometric nonlinearity. Recently, therapy verification and localization films (CEA TVS and TLF films) from a Swedish manufacturer have become available in vacuum-sealed water-proof packaging in the US. The packaging renders the CEA films useful in a water phantom and ideal for photon and electron dosimetry. A systematic study has been carried out to investigate the potential of dosimetric application of the new films for high energy photon and electron beams. For the TVS films, the characteristic curve is generally energy independent but appears to be dependent on the source of the radiation, i.e., whether it is gamma rays or bremsstrahlung x rays. Compared to Kodak Readypack XV films, the CEA TVS film is linear in optical density over a much larger range of radiation dose. The inter- and intra- variation of the TVS films is less than 2%. For electrons, the characteristic curve is linear over a similar density range as photons but exhibit a slight energy dependence. TVS film is slightly directional dependent on the incident radiation for both photons and electrons. The perpendicular orientation results in higher optical density than the parallel orientation. The differences are within ±2% except in the buildup region for photons and in the exponential fall-off region of the electron beams where differences up to 4% are noted. For the CEA TLF film which is about three times faster than the TVS film, the characteristic curve is reasonably linear over the dose range of 0-15 cGy and energy independent within the experimental uncertainty (±5%). Percent depth dose and isodose measurements with the TVS films are in good agreement with ion chamber results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1225-1232
Number of pages8
JournalMedical physics
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1996


  • characteristic curve
  • electron dosimetry
  • film dosimetry
  • photon dosimetry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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