The human DNA repair enzyme apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE/ref- 1) is a multifunctional protein in the DNA base excision repair (BER) pathway that is responsible for repair of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites in DNA. DNA repair and programmed cell death both function using different mechanisms to protect the organism from the consequences of extensive cellular damage; however, little is known about the relationship of the DNA BER repair pathway to apoptosis. We have determined the relationship of a BER DNA repair enzyme, APE, to apoptosis using the myeloid leukemia cell line HL-60, which can be induced to differentiate down the granulocytic or monocytic/macrophage pathway. Treatment of HL-60 cells with retinoic acid/DMSO (granulocytic) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (monocytic) results in apoptosis and in down- regulation of APE expression at both the RNA and protein levels. Moreover, double-labeling experiments using APE immunohistochemistry and the terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end labeling assay for apoptosis demonstrate that individual cells undergoing apoptosis lose expression of APE regardless of their state of differentiation. Blocking apoptosis by overexpression of the bcl-2 proto-oncogene in HL-60 cells or by a bcr-abl-related mechanism in K562 cells and subsequent differentiation results in morphological differentiation but no loss of APE expression. These studies establish that down-regulation of APE expression is associated with programmed cell death in cells of the myeloid lineage.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Cell Growth and Differentiation|
|State||Published - Apr 1 1997|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology