Downregulation of hepatic stem cell factor by Vivo-Morpholino treatment inhibits mast cell migration and decreases biliary damage/senescence and liver fibrosis in Mdr2−/− mice

Vik Meadows, Lindsey Kennedy, Laura Hargrove, Jennifer Demieville, Fanyin Meng, Shohaib Virani, Evan Reinhart, Konstantina Kyritsi, Pietro Invernizzi, Zhihong Yang, Nan Wu, Suthat Liangpunsakul, Gianfranco Alpini, Heather Francis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is characterized by increased mast cell (MC) infiltration, biliary damage and hepatic fibrosis. Cholangiocytes secrete stem cell factor (SCF), which is a chemoattractant for c-kit expressed on MCs. We aimed to determine if blocking SCF inhibits MC migration, biliary damage and hepatic fibrosis. Methods: FVB/NJ and Mdr2−/− mice were treated with Mismatch or SCF Vivo-Morpholinos. We measured (i) SCF expression and secretion; (ii) hepatic damage; (iii) MC migration/activation and histamine signaling; (iv) ductular reaction and biliary senescence; and (v) hepatic fibrosis. In human PSC patients, SCF expression and secretion were measured. In vitro, cholangiocytes were evaluated for SCF expression and secretion. Biliary proliferation/senescence was measured in cholangiocytes pretreated with 0.1% BSA or the SCF inhibitor, ISK03. Cultured HSCs were stimulated with cholangiocyte supernatant and activation measured. MC migration was determined with cholangiocytes pretreated with BSA or ISK03 loaded into the bottom of Boyden chambers and MCs into top chamber. Results: Biliary SCF expression and SCF serum levels increase in human PSC. Cholangiocytes, but not hepatocytes, from SCF Mismatch Mdr2−/− mice have increased SCF expression and secretion. Inhibition of SCF in Mdr2−/− mice reduced (i) hepatic damage; (ii) MC migration; (iii) histamine and SCF serum levels; and (iv) ductular reaction/biliary senescence/hepatic fibrosis. In vitro, cholangiocytes express and secrete SCF. Blocking biliary SCF decreased MC migration, biliary proliferation/senescence, and HSC activation. Conclusion: Cholangiocytes secrete increased levels of SCF inducing MC migration, contributing to biliary damage/hepatic fibrosis. Targeting MC infiltration may be an option to ameliorate PSC progression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number165557
JournalBiochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease
Volume1865
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2019

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Morpholinos
Stem Cell Factor
Mast Cells
Liver Cirrhosis
Cell Movement
Hepatocytes
Down-Regulation
Sclerosing Cholangitis
Therapeutics
Fibrosis
Liver
Histamine
Chemotactic Factors

Keywords

  • Fibrosis
  • Mast cells
  • Migration
  • PSC
  • Stem cell factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

Downregulation of hepatic stem cell factor by Vivo-Morpholino treatment inhibits mast cell migration and decreases biliary damage/senescence and liver fibrosis in Mdr2−/− mice. / Meadows, Vik; Kennedy, Lindsey; Hargrove, Laura; Demieville, Jennifer; Meng, Fanyin; Virani, Shohaib; Reinhart, Evan; Kyritsi, Konstantina; Invernizzi, Pietro; Yang, Zhihong; Wu, Nan; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Alpini, Gianfranco; Francis, Heather.

In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease, Vol. 1865, No. 12, 165557, 01.12.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Meadows, Vik ; Kennedy, Lindsey ; Hargrove, Laura ; Demieville, Jennifer ; Meng, Fanyin ; Virani, Shohaib ; Reinhart, Evan ; Kyritsi, Konstantina ; Invernizzi, Pietro ; Yang, Zhihong ; Wu, Nan ; Liangpunsakul, Suthat ; Alpini, Gianfranco ; Francis, Heather. / Downregulation of hepatic stem cell factor by Vivo-Morpholino treatment inhibits mast cell migration and decreases biliary damage/senescence and liver fibrosis in Mdr2−/− mice. In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease. 2019 ; Vol. 1865, No. 12.
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title = "Downregulation of hepatic stem cell factor by Vivo-Morpholino treatment inhibits mast cell migration and decreases biliary damage/senescence and liver fibrosis in Mdr2−/− mice",
abstract = "Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is characterized by increased mast cell (MC) infiltration, biliary damage and hepatic fibrosis. Cholangiocytes secrete stem cell factor (SCF), which is a chemoattractant for c-kit expressed on MCs. We aimed to determine if blocking SCF inhibits MC migration, biliary damage and hepatic fibrosis. Methods: FVB/NJ and Mdr2−/− mice were treated with Mismatch or SCF Vivo-Morpholinos. We measured (i) SCF expression and secretion; (ii) hepatic damage; (iii) MC migration/activation and histamine signaling; (iv) ductular reaction and biliary senescence; and (v) hepatic fibrosis. In human PSC patients, SCF expression and secretion were measured. In vitro, cholangiocytes were evaluated for SCF expression and secretion. Biliary proliferation/senescence was measured in cholangiocytes pretreated with 0.1{\%} BSA or the SCF inhibitor, ISK03. Cultured HSCs were stimulated with cholangiocyte supernatant and activation measured. MC migration was determined with cholangiocytes pretreated with BSA or ISK03 loaded into the bottom of Boyden chambers and MCs into top chamber. Results: Biliary SCF expression and SCF serum levels increase in human PSC. Cholangiocytes, but not hepatocytes, from SCF Mismatch Mdr2−/− mice have increased SCF expression and secretion. Inhibition of SCF in Mdr2−/− mice reduced (i) hepatic damage; (ii) MC migration; (iii) histamine and SCF serum levels; and (iv) ductular reaction/biliary senescence/hepatic fibrosis. In vitro, cholangiocytes express and secrete SCF. Blocking biliary SCF decreased MC migration, biliary proliferation/senescence, and HSC activation. Conclusion: Cholangiocytes secrete increased levels of SCF inducing MC migration, contributing to biliary damage/hepatic fibrosis. Targeting MC infiltration may be an option to ameliorate PSC progression.",
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T1 - Downregulation of hepatic stem cell factor by Vivo-Morpholino treatment inhibits mast cell migration and decreases biliary damage/senescence and liver fibrosis in Mdr2−/− mice

AU - Meadows, Vik

AU - Kennedy, Lindsey

AU - Hargrove, Laura

AU - Demieville, Jennifer

AU - Meng, Fanyin

AU - Virani, Shohaib

AU - Reinhart, Evan

AU - Kyritsi, Konstantina

AU - Invernizzi, Pietro

AU - Yang, Zhihong

AU - Wu, Nan

AU - Liangpunsakul, Suthat

AU - Alpini, Gianfranco

AU - Francis, Heather

PY - 2019/12/1

Y1 - 2019/12/1

N2 - Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is characterized by increased mast cell (MC) infiltration, biliary damage and hepatic fibrosis. Cholangiocytes secrete stem cell factor (SCF), which is a chemoattractant for c-kit expressed on MCs. We aimed to determine if blocking SCF inhibits MC migration, biliary damage and hepatic fibrosis. Methods: FVB/NJ and Mdr2−/− mice were treated with Mismatch or SCF Vivo-Morpholinos. We measured (i) SCF expression and secretion; (ii) hepatic damage; (iii) MC migration/activation and histamine signaling; (iv) ductular reaction and biliary senescence; and (v) hepatic fibrosis. In human PSC patients, SCF expression and secretion were measured. In vitro, cholangiocytes were evaluated for SCF expression and secretion. Biliary proliferation/senescence was measured in cholangiocytes pretreated with 0.1% BSA or the SCF inhibitor, ISK03. Cultured HSCs were stimulated with cholangiocyte supernatant and activation measured. MC migration was determined with cholangiocytes pretreated with BSA or ISK03 loaded into the bottom of Boyden chambers and MCs into top chamber. Results: Biliary SCF expression and SCF serum levels increase in human PSC. Cholangiocytes, but not hepatocytes, from SCF Mismatch Mdr2−/− mice have increased SCF expression and secretion. Inhibition of SCF in Mdr2−/− mice reduced (i) hepatic damage; (ii) MC migration; (iii) histamine and SCF serum levels; and (iv) ductular reaction/biliary senescence/hepatic fibrosis. In vitro, cholangiocytes express and secrete SCF. Blocking biliary SCF decreased MC migration, biliary proliferation/senescence, and HSC activation. Conclusion: Cholangiocytes secrete increased levels of SCF inducing MC migration, contributing to biliary damage/hepatic fibrosis. Targeting MC infiltration may be an option to ameliorate PSC progression.

AB - Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is characterized by increased mast cell (MC) infiltration, biliary damage and hepatic fibrosis. Cholangiocytes secrete stem cell factor (SCF), which is a chemoattractant for c-kit expressed on MCs. We aimed to determine if blocking SCF inhibits MC migration, biliary damage and hepatic fibrosis. Methods: FVB/NJ and Mdr2−/− mice were treated with Mismatch or SCF Vivo-Morpholinos. We measured (i) SCF expression and secretion; (ii) hepatic damage; (iii) MC migration/activation and histamine signaling; (iv) ductular reaction and biliary senescence; and (v) hepatic fibrosis. In human PSC patients, SCF expression and secretion were measured. In vitro, cholangiocytes were evaluated for SCF expression and secretion. Biliary proliferation/senescence was measured in cholangiocytes pretreated with 0.1% BSA or the SCF inhibitor, ISK03. Cultured HSCs were stimulated with cholangiocyte supernatant and activation measured. MC migration was determined with cholangiocytes pretreated with BSA or ISK03 loaded into the bottom of Boyden chambers and MCs into top chamber. Results: Biliary SCF expression and SCF serum levels increase in human PSC. Cholangiocytes, but not hepatocytes, from SCF Mismatch Mdr2−/− mice have increased SCF expression and secretion. Inhibition of SCF in Mdr2−/− mice reduced (i) hepatic damage; (ii) MC migration; (iii) histamine and SCF serum levels; and (iv) ductular reaction/biliary senescence/hepatic fibrosis. In vitro, cholangiocytes express and secrete SCF. Blocking biliary SCF decreased MC migration, biliary proliferation/senescence, and HSC activation. Conclusion: Cholangiocytes secrete increased levels of SCF inducing MC migration, contributing to biliary damage/hepatic fibrosis. Targeting MC infiltration may be an option to ameliorate PSC progression.

KW - Fibrosis

KW - Mast cells

KW - Migration

KW - PSC

KW - Stem cell factor

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