Early cognitive status and productivity outcome after traumatic brain injury: Findings from the TBI model systems

Mark Sherer, Angelle M. Sander, Todd G. Nick, Walter M. High, James F. Malec, Mitchell Rosenthal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

134 Scopus citations


Objective: To evaluate the contribution of early cognitive assessment to the prediction of productivity outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) adjusted for severity of injury, demographic factors, and preinjury employment status. Design: Inception cohort. Setting: Six inpatient brain injury rehabilitation programs. Participants: A total of 388 adults with TBI whose posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) resolved before discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Interventions: Administered neuropsychologic tests during inpatient stay on emergence from PTA. Follow-up interview and evaluation. Predictor measures also determined. Main Outcome Measure: Productivity status at follow-up 12 months postinjury. Results: Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that preinjury productivity status, duration of PTA, education level, and early cognitive status each made significant, independent contributions to the prediction of productivity status at follow-up. When adjusted for all other predictors, persons scoring at the 75th percentile on early cognitive status (less impaired) had 1.61 times greater odds (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-2.41) of being productive follow-up than those scoring at the 25th percentile (more impaired). Without adjustment, persons scoring at the 75th percentile had 2.46 times greater odds (95% CI, 1.77-3.43) of being productive at follow-up. Conclusions: Findings support the utility of early cognitive assessment by using neuropsychologic tests. In addition to other benefits, early cognitive assessment makes an independent contribution to prediction of late outcome. Findings support the clinical practice of performing initial neuropsychologic evaluations after resolution of PTA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)183-192
Number of pages10
JournalArchives of physical medicine and rehabilitation
Issue number2
StatePublished - Dec 17 2002


  • Brain injuries
  • Cognition disorders
  • Employment
  • Neuropsychological tests
  • Rehabilitation
  • Treatment outcome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation

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