Efavirenz primary and secondary metabolism in vitro and in vivo: Identification of novel metabolic pathways and cytochrome P450 2A6 as the principal catalyst of efavirenz 7-hydroxylation

Evan T. Ogburn, David R. Jones, Andrea R. Masters, Cong Xu, Yingying Guo, Zeruesenay Desta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

108 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Efavirenz primary and secondary metabolism was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In human liver microsome (HLM) samples, 7- and 8-hydroxyefavirenz accounted for 22.5 and 77.5% of the overall efavirenz metabolism, respectively. Kinetic, inhibition, and correlation analyses in HLM samples and experiments in expressed cytochrome P450 show that CYP2A6 is the principal catalyst of efavirenz 7-hydroxylation. Although CYP2B6 was the main enzyme catalyzing efavirenz 8-hydroxylation, CYP2A6 also seems to contribute. Both 7- and 8-hydroxyefavirenz were further oxidized to novel dihydroxylated metabolite(s) primarily by CYP2B6. These dihydroxylated metabolite(s) were not the same as 8,14-dihydroxyefavirenz, a metabolite that has been suggested to be directly formed via 14-hydroxylation of 8-hydroxyefavirenz, because 8,14- dihydroxyefavirenz was not detected in vitro when efavirenz, 7-, or 8-hydroxyefavirenz were used as substrates. Efavirenz and its primary and secondary metabolites that were identified in vitro were quantified in plasma samples obtained from subjects taking a single 600-mg oral dose of efavirenz. 8,14-Dihydroxyefavirenz was detected and quantified in these plasma samples, suggesting that the glucuronide or the sulfate of 8-hydroxyefavirenz might undergo 14-hydroxylation in vivo. In conclusion, efavirenz metabolism is complex, involving unique and novel secondary metabolism. Although efavirenz 8-hydroxylation by CYP2B6 remains the major clearance mechanism of efavirenz, CYP2A6-mediated 7-hydroxylation (and to some extent 8-hydroxylation) may also contribute. Efavirenz may be a valuable dual phenotyping tool to study CYP2B6 and CYP2A6, and this should be further tested in vivo.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1218-1229
Number of pages12
JournalDrug Metabolism and Disposition
Volume38
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - 2010

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efavirenz
Secondary Metabolism
Hydroxylation
Metabolic Networks and Pathways
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
Liver Microsomes
In Vitro Techniques

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Efavirenz primary and secondary metabolism in vitro and in vivo : Identification of novel metabolic pathways and cytochrome P450 2A6 as the principal catalyst of efavirenz 7-hydroxylation. / Ogburn, Evan T.; Jones, David R.; Masters, Andrea R.; Xu, Cong; Guo, Yingying; Desta, Zeruesenay.

In: Drug Metabolism and Disposition, Vol. 38, No. 7, 2010, p. 1218-1229.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Efavirenz primary and secondary metabolism was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In human liver microsome (HLM) samples, 7- and 8-hydroxyefavirenz accounted for 22.5 and 77.5{\%} of the overall efavirenz metabolism, respectively. Kinetic, inhibition, and correlation analyses in HLM samples and experiments in expressed cytochrome P450 show that CYP2A6 is the principal catalyst of efavirenz 7-hydroxylation. Although CYP2B6 was the main enzyme catalyzing efavirenz 8-hydroxylation, CYP2A6 also seems to contribute. Both 7- and 8-hydroxyefavirenz were further oxidized to novel dihydroxylated metabolite(s) primarily by CYP2B6. These dihydroxylated metabolite(s) were not the same as 8,14-dihydroxyefavirenz, a metabolite that has been suggested to be directly formed via 14-hydroxylation of 8-hydroxyefavirenz, because 8,14- dihydroxyefavirenz was not detected in vitro when efavirenz, 7-, or 8-hydroxyefavirenz were used as substrates. Efavirenz and its primary and secondary metabolites that were identified in vitro were quantified in plasma samples obtained from subjects taking a single 600-mg oral dose of efavirenz. 8,14-Dihydroxyefavirenz was detected and quantified in these plasma samples, suggesting that the glucuronide or the sulfate of 8-hydroxyefavirenz might undergo 14-hydroxylation in vivo. In conclusion, efavirenz metabolism is complex, involving unique and novel secondary metabolism. Although efavirenz 8-hydroxylation by CYP2B6 remains the major clearance mechanism of efavirenz, CYP2A6-mediated 7-hydroxylation (and to some extent 8-hydroxylation) may also contribute. Efavirenz may be a valuable dual phenotyping tool to study CYP2B6 and CYP2A6, and this should be further tested in vivo.",
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