Effect of Gastric Fluid Volume on the In Vitro Dissolution and In Vivo Absorption of BCS Class II Drugs: a Case Study with Nifedipine

Ahmed M. Nader, Sara Quinney, Hala M. Fadda, David R. Foster

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Scopus citations


Nifedipine is a BCS Class II drug used for treatment of hypertension and preterm labor. Large inter-patient variability in nifedipine absorption results in variable exposure among different patients. We conducted in vitro dissolution studies to compare nifedipine dissolution from immediate release (IR) capsules with different volumes of dissolution media. Results from dissolution studies were used to design a crossover study in healthy volunteers to evaluate the effect of coadministered water volume with nifedipine 10 mg IR capsules on nifedipine pharmacokinetics, especially absorption (Cmax, tmax, and AUC0-6). Dissolution studies demonstrated that larger gastric fluid volumes result in enhanced nifedipine dissolution from 10 mg IR cosolvent capsules (73 vs. 17% in 200 and 100 mL simulated gastric fluid, respectively, at 30 min). The pharmacokinetic crossover study in healthy volunteers (N = 6) did not show a significant effect of the water volume administered with the capsule (50 vs. 250 mL) on Cmax, tmax, or AUC0-6 of orally administered nifedipine IR capsules (10 mg). However, administration of large water volumes resulted in lower variability in nifedipine Cmax (47 vs. 70% for 250 and 50 mL, respectively). Administration of large water volumes with nifedipine 10 mg IR cosolvent capsules may reduce inter-individual variability in plasma exposure. Evaluation of similar effects in other BCS Class II drugs is recommended.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalAAPS Journal
StateAccepted/In press - Apr 22 2016



  • absorption
  • dissolution
  • nifedipine
  • pharmacokinetics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science

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